Chambered Cairn

            Cairn Holy

Index

During the course of the seventh century, the Angles of Northumbria conquered the people of Southwest Scotland, first known in Ptolemy’s 2nd century map, as the Novantae and Selgovae (Segloes in the 8th century Ravenna Cosmography). At its height, the Angles dominated a territory that extended north of the Humber Estuary to the Lothians in modern Scotland, and west into Cumbria, Galloway and Carrick. The territories of Deira and Bernicia lay at the core of the kingdom, until it ceased to exist as an independent kingdom in the mid tenth century, when Deira was conquered by the Danes and formed into the kingdom of York. In his Deeds of the Bishops of England (Gesta Pontificum Anglorum), William of Malmesbury, writing of the newly established bishopric called Candida Casa in Whithorn, said it was at the very end of England, next to Scotland. Candida Casa with the church was established by St. Ninian in Whithorn in Galloway during the mid-fifth century AD. The name is derived from Latin, casa (meaning, hut or house), and candida (meaning white, shining or glittering), and refers possibly to the stone used to construct it, or the whitewash use to paint it. Very little is known about its early history, but we have a fairly comprehensive list of bishops from the time of Bede of Jarrow, until it seems, the Angles lost control of the region.


Over the next two centuries, the territory north of the Solway Firth would remain part of Northumbria and an appendage of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom. However, the arrival of the Norse Vikings and their fleets along the Solway Firth and the Rhinns of Galloway, would reshape its history and create a new hegemony of Norse-Gael Viking settlements, a mixed group of people known as the Gall Gaidheil, the foreign Gael, who gave their name to Galloway. Much has been written about them and their relationship with the Viking settlements in Ireland, particularly Dublin, the Isles of Man and the western Isles of Scotland; however, less is known about their leaders in Galloway, and how they co-existed alongside the Britons and Angles. The political upheaval generated by the Viking incursions and their settlements has largely gone unrecorded, not a single document survives from within the region, and what is known, mainly relies on independent references found in medieval records from England and Ireland. I have compiled a list below noting their source and any comments.


Each extract and reference mentioned tells its own story; analysed, evaluated and scrutinised by historians and scholars alike over the centuries, adds to our understanding, interpretation and re-interpretation of medieval history crossing the borders between the north of England and southern Scotland, including modern Galloway. They raise more questions than answers, particularly, the break-up of Northumbria to the west in Galloway, the role played by the kings of the Scots and Cumbrians during the first half of the tenth century, and their relationship with the Norse-Gaels, who dominated much of the west of Scotland.


This List begins with the Venerable Bede of Jarrow and the Anglo-Saxon bishops of Whithorn.



[1] Pechthelm, bishop of Whithorn


1) Venerable Bede of Jarrow


A.D. 731: At vero provinciae Northanhumbrorum, cui rex Ceolwulfus praest, quatuor nunc episcopi praesulatum tenant; Wilfridus in Eboracensi ecclesia, Ethelwaldus in Lindisfarnensi, Acca in Hagulstadensi ecclesia, Pecthemus in ea, quae Candida Casa vocatur, quae nuper, multiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem pontificates addita ipsum primum habet antistitem. Pictorum quoque natio tempore hoc et foedus pacis cum gente habet Anglorum, et catholicae pacis et Veritatis cum universali ecclesia particeps exsistere Gaudet. Scoti, qui Britanniam incolunt, suis contenti finibus nil contra gentem Anglorum insidiarum moliuntur aut fraudium. Britones, quamvis et maxima ex parte domestico sibi odio gentem Anglo rum et totius catholicæ ecclesiæ statutum Pascha minus recte moribusque improbis impugnent, tamen et divina sibi et humana prorsus resistente virtute, in neutro cupi tum possunt obtinere propositum; quippe, qui quamvis ex parte sui sint juris, nonnulla tamen ex parte Anglo rum sunt servitio mancipati.


[Translation] But in the province of the Northumbrians, where King Ceolwulf reigns, four bishops now preside; wufrid in the church of York, Ethelwald in that of Lindisfarne, Acca in that of Hagulstad, Pechthelm in that which is called the White House, which, from the increased number of believers, has lately become an epis copal see, and has him for its first prelate. The Picts also at this time are at peace with the English nation, and rejoice in being united in peace and truth with the whole Catholic Church. The Scots that inhabit Britain, satisfied with their own territories, meditate no hostilities against the nation of the English. The Britons, though they, for the most part, through innate hatred, are adverse to the English nation, and wrong fully, and from wicked custom, oppose the appointed Easter of the whole Catholic Church; yet from both the Divine and human power withstanding them, can in no way prevail as they desire; for though in part they are their own masters, yet elsewhere they are also brought under subjection to the English.

[Giles, Rev. J. A.: Complete Works of Venerable Bede in the original Latin, collated with the Manuscript and Various printed editions (London, 1843), Vol. III, pp. 294-95]


[Comment] Alan Anderson translates the first sentence as “But over the province of the Northumbrians, which Ceolwulf rules, four bishops now hold sway: Wilfred in the church of York; Ethelwald in that of Lindisfarne; Acca in that of Hexham; Pechthelm in that which is called Whithorn, and which, through increase of the ranks of the faithful, has recently been raised to the see of an episcopate, and has him as its first bishop”.

 

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 52-3]


[2] Acca, bishop of Hexham from 709 to 732


1) Chronicle of Hexham


A.D. 732:  Acca. Sunt tamen qui dicunt quod eo tempore episcopalem sedemin Candida (Casa) inceperit et prseparaverit.


[Rainer, James: History of the Priory of Hexham, Vol. 1 in The publication of the Surtees Society (Durham, 1864), Vol. Xliv, p. 35]


[Comment] It is unknown why Bishop Acca withdrew or left his diocese of Hexham. However, tradition claims he became bishop of Whithorn in 732.  


[3] District of Kyle in Ayrshire


1) Continuation of Venerable Bede


A.D. 750: Eadberctus  campum  Cyil  cum aliis  regionibus  suo  regno  addidit.


[Plummer, Charles: Venerabilis Baedae Historiam Ecclesiasticam (Oxford, 1896), Vol. 1, p. 362]


[Translation] Edbert added to his kingdom the plain of Kyle, with other districts.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 56]


[4] Frithwald, bishop of Whithorn


1) Simeon of Durham


A.D. 764: His quoque temporibus Frithwald episcopus Candidse-casse ex hoc saeculo migravit, pro quo Pectwine in loco illius episcopus subrogatur.


[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 22]


[Translation] At this time also, Frithwald, bishop of Candida Casa [Whitherne], departed this life, and Phectwine was appointed bishop in his stead.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 451]


2) Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon


A.D. 765: Tunc etiam Fridwald episcopus Witern (wrongly has Ceastrensis) vivere destitit, qui factus fuerat episcopus VI annon regni Ceolwlf. Eo tempore Witwine factus est episcopus Witern.


[Arnold, Thomas: Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum (London, 1879), p. 125]


[Comment] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MSS. D, E. notes Frithwald, bishop at Whithorn, died on the Nones of May, 763. He was consecrated at Chester on the eighteenth before the Kalends of September, in the sixth winter of Ceolwulf’s kingship; and he was bishop twenty-nine winters. Then Pechtwin was consecrated as bishop of Whithorn at Elfet ee (perhaps Elvet river, Durham), on the sixteenth before the Kalends of August.


[5] Pectwine, bishop of Whithorn


1) Simeon of Durham


A.D. 777. Anno Dcc.lxxvij Pechtwine, episcopus Candidae-casae, xiij kal. Octobris migravit ex hoc saeculo ad aeternae salutis gaudium,qui eidem ecclesise xiiij annis praefuit.


[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 25]


[Translation] Pichtwine, bishop of Candida Casa, departed from this life on the thirteenth of the kalends of October [19th Sept.], to the enjoyment of everlasting salvation, having presided over that church fourteen years.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 451]


2) Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon


A.D. 776: Quo annon Witwine episcopus Witterne, xxiv, anno episcopatus sui, morte affectus est.


[Arnold, Thomas: Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum (London, 1879), p. 126]


[Comment] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MSS. D, E. notes, 776, this year died bishop Pectwin, on the thirteenth before the Kalends of October. He was bishop fourteen winters.


[6] Ethelbert, bishop of Whithorn


1) Simeon of Durham


A.D.777: Cui Ethelbyrht successit [Translated], Ethelbyrht succeeded him (source as above).


[Comment] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MSS. D, E. notes, And in the same year Ethelbert was consecrated as bishop of Whithorn in York, on the seventeenth before the Kalends of July.


2) Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon


A.D. 777: Eodem annon Edelbert sacratus est apud Eoverwic espscopus in Witterne.


[Arnold, Thomas: Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum (London, 1879), p. 126]


[7] Ethelbert, bishop of Whithorn


A.D. 789: Eodem anno, hoc est dcclxxxix Dominicse Incarnationis anno, Ethelbertus, sede sua in Candida Casa relicta, Haugustaldensem episcopatum suscepit, cui octo annis prsefuit.

[Rainer, James: History of the Priory of Hexham, Vol. 1 in The publication of the Surtees Society (Durham, 1864), Vol. Xliv, p. 35]


[Translation] In the same year, that is in the 789 year from the Lord's incarnation, Ethelbert left his see in Whithorn and received the bishopric of Hexham, which he ruled for eight years.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 59]<br>


[Comment] Ethelbert is mentioned on several occasions exercising his episcopal functions. On 16 kal. August, 791, he and archbishop Eanbald consecrated Baldwulf to the see of Whithorn (Saxon Chron., 335) at a place called Hearrahalch, i. e., Locus Dominorum (Simeon, col. 111). On 8 kal. Junii, 795, at York, he, archbishop Eanbald, and bishops Higbald and Baldwulf, consecrated Eadulf king of Northumbria; (Saxon Chron., 338), and, on 18 kal. Sept., 796, Ethelbert, Higbald, and Badwnlf consecrated Eanbald II. bishop of York in a monastery called Sochasburgh (Sockburn, Sadberge, or Sockbridge?) (Simeon, col. 111).


[8] Baldwlf, bishop of Whithorn 790-805


1) Simeon of Durham


A.D.790. Eodem anno Badwlf ad Candidam-casam ordinatur episcopus in loco qui dicitur Hearrabalch quod interpretari potest Locus Dominorum.

[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 30]


[Translation] In the same year, Baduulf was consecrated bishop at Candida Casa [Whitherne] in the place called Hearrahaleh, which may be interpreted, "the place of lords."


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 456]


2) Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon


A.D. 791: Enbaldus vero archi-episcopus Eboracensis sacravit Baldulf episcopum apud Witerne.


[Arnold, Thomas: Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum (London, 1879), p. 129]


[9] Baldwlf, bishop of Whithorn


1) Simeon of Durham

A.D. 798. Id est iiij idus Augusti, Eanbaldus archiepiscopus obiit in monasterio quod dicitur Etclete, corpusque ejus magno comitante agmine ad Eboracam civitatem portantes, in ecclesia beati Petri Apostoli sepultum est honorifice. Statim vero alter Eanbaldus, ejusdem ecclesise presbyter, in episcopatum est electus, convenientibus ad ordinationem ejus Ethelberto et Hygbaldo atque Badwlfo episcopis, in monasterio quod dicitur Sochasburg xviij kal. Septembris, die Dominica.


[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 34]


[Translation] On the fourth of the ides of August [10th August], archbishop Eanbald died in the monastery called Etlete (Edete), and his body, accompanied by a great multitude, being conveyed to the city of York, was honourably interred in the church of the blessed apostle Peter; and another Eanbald, a priest of the same church, was at once elected to the episcopate; bishops Ethelbert, Hygbald, and Badwlf meeting at his consecration, at a monastery called Sochasburg, on Sunday the eighteenth of the kalends of September.


[Comment] At Bigwell on 11 June, 803, “Ecgbert was concentrated bishop of diocese of Lindisfarne by Eanbald, archbishop of York, Eanbert, bishop of Hagustald and Baldwulf, bishop of Whithern.  His date of death is unknown, but appears to have been still in alive in c.805.


[10] Hearthured, bishop of Whithorn


A.D. c.820: Defuncto Ecgberto Lindisfarnensi episcopo, Heatheredus successit.


[Thorpe, Benjamin: Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 65]


1) Florence of Worchester


Terra Pictorum Gentis


Nomina Episcoporum Candida Casa


Trumwine

Pehthelmus

Frithowaldus

Pehtwinus

Ethelberhtu

Beadwlfus

Heathoredus


[Thorpe, Benjamin: Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 246]


[Comment] In the Chronicle of Florence of Worchester and MS Vespasian B vi in the British Library, Heathured is the last-named bishop c.833-6. Other chronicles omit his name, and follow William of Malmesbury (1095-c.1143). He describes Candida Casa as a place at the very end of England, next to Scotland, and after naming Badwulf the last bishop, notes “I have not come across any other bishops of this place. In fact, the bishopric soon came to an end, for, as I have said, Candida Casa was on the English frontier, and an easy victim for raids by Picts and Scots” (William of Malmesbury, The Deeds of the Bishops of England Gesta Pontificum Anglorum translated by David Preest (Woodbridge, 2002), pp. 171-2). He lists as the bishops of Candida Casa, Pecthelm, first bishop, followed by Frithwald, Pectwine, Æthelberht and Baldwulf, the last named of five bishops, who appear in similar lists, such as those found in the Textus Roffensis, compiled between 1122 and 1124.


2) Textus Roffensis


Nomina episcorum aecclesiae quae dicitur Candi(da) casa


[Translation] Names of the bishops of the church of Candida casa


i. Pehthelm

ii. Froðowald (Frithwald)

iii. Hehtwine (Pehtwine)

iv. Eðedlberht

v. Æadwulf (Beadwulf)


[Lists of Archbishops of Canterbury, Bishops of England and Scotland translated from Textus de Ecclesia Roffensis per Ernulphum episcopum, compiled between 1122 and 1124, Rochester Cathedral Library, MS A.3.5]


In his Studies in the History of Old English Literature (Oxford, 1953), p. 5, Kenneth Sisam says the contemporary MS. Vespasian B vi is good evidence that there was at least one bishop after Baldwulf, who is last heard of in 805. That the ‘Whitern line’ ended with Baldwulf is an inference of ex silentio, based on a lack of contemporary to the contrary. William of Malmesbury probably relied on a copy of the lists of MS. Vespasian B vi made before they were added to. The existence of such a copy is attested by MS. Tiberius B v. This Christ Church compilation of the time of Archbishop Sigeric (990-4) contains, in corrupt form, the same lists of the bishops and royal genealogies, the Lindisfarne line stopping at Baldwulf as they do in the original list MS. Vespasian B vi.  If indeed, there were other bishops after Heathured, the list was never updated to include them.


[11] Angles, Britons and Picts


1) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 870: Obsesio Ailech Cluathe a Norddmannis, i. Amlaiph & Ímhar duo reges Nordmannorum obsederunt arcem illum & distruxerunt in fine iiii mensium acrem & predauerunt.


[Translation]: The siege of Ail Cluaithe (old name of Dumbarton Rock) by the Norsemen: Amlaíb and Ímar, two kings of the Norsemen, laid siege to the fortress and at the end of four months they destroyed and plundered it.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 326-7]


2) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 871: Amlaiph & Ímhar do thuidecht afrithisi du Ath Cliath, a Albain dibh cetaibh long, & praeda mazima homium Anglorum & Britonum & Pictorum deducta est secum ad Hiberniam in captiuitate.


[Translation]: Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Áth Cliath from Alba with two hundred ships, bringing away with them in captivity to Ireland a great prey of Angles and Britons and Picts.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 326-7]


3) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 872: Artghal, rex Britanorum Sratha Cluade, consilio Custantini filii Cinaedho occisus est.


[Translation]: Artgal, king of the Britons of Strathclyde, was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 328-9]


4) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 873: Imhar, rex Nordmannorum totius Hibernie & Brittanie, uitam finiuit.


[Translation] Ímhar, king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and Britain, ended his life.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 330-1]


[12] Picts and Britons of Strathclyde


1) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 875: Congresio Pictorum fri Dubghallu & strages magna Pictorum facta est.


[Translation] The Picts encountered the dark foreigners, and a great slaughter of the Picts resulted.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 328-9]


2) Simeon of Durham

A.D. 875: Anno Dominicae incarnationis dccc.Ixxv, nativitatis autem Elfredi regis xxvj, praedictus exercitus Repadun deseruit seseque in duas partes divisit. Una pars cum Haldene ad regionem Northanhymbrorum secessit, et eam vastavit, et hiemavit juxta flumen quod dicitur Tine et totam gentem suo dominatui subdidit et Pictos atque Stretduccenses depopulati sunt.

[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 54]


[Translation] The twenty-sixth (seventh) year of the birth of king Elfred, the aforesaid army (Danes) left Repton, and divided itself into two bodies. One division went with Haldene to the country of the Northumbrians, laid it waste, and wintered near the river called the Tyne; and subdued the whole nation under their dominion; they devastated also the Picts and the Stretduccenses [the Strathclyde Britons].


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 475]


3) Florence of Worchester


A.D. 875: Supra memoratus saepe exercitus Hreopedun deserens, in duas se divisit turmas, cujus alterapars cum Halfdene in regionem Northanhym-brorum perrexit, ibique hiemavit, juxta flumen quod dicitur Tine, et totam Northanhymbrorum regionem suo subdidit domino; necnon Pictos et Stratcluttenses depopulate sunt.

 

[Thorpe, Benjamin: Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 92]


4) Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 875 [874]: [Translation] Here the raiding-army (Danes) went Repton, and Halfdan went with some of the raiding-army into Northumbria, and took winter-quarters on the River Tyne; and the raiding-army conquered that land, and often raided among the Picts and among the Strathclyde Britons.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 72]


5) Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 875 [874]: [Translation] Here the raiding-army (Danes) went from Repton, and Halfdan went with some of the raiding-army into Northumbria, and took winter quarters on the River Tyne; and the raiding-army conquered that land, and often raided among the Picts and among the Strathclyde Britons.

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 73]


[13] Sigfrith son of Ímar, king of the Norsemen


A.D. 888: Sichfrith m. Imair rex Nordmannorum, a fratre suo per dolum occisus est.


[Translation] Sigfrith son of Ímar, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by his kinsman.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 344-5]


[14] The coastline of the Saxon


A.D. 913: Cathroined re n-gentibh for fairinn nochoblaigh de Ultaibh i n-airiur Saxan dú i torchradur ili,.i. Cumuscach m. Mael Mochorghi m. righ Leithi Cathail.


[Translation] The heathens inflicted a battle-rout on the crew of a new fleet of the Ulaid, on the coast of the Saxon (England), and many fell, including Cumuscach son of Mael Mocheirgi, son of the king of Leth Cathail.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 344-5]


[15] Ragnald Uí Ímar, king of Northumbria


A.D. 914:  Bellum nauale oc Manainn eter Bárid m. n-Oitir & Ragnall h.Imair ubi Bare pene cum omni exercitu suo deletus est.


[Translation] A naval battle at Manu between Barid son of Oitir and Ragnall grandson of Ímar, in which Barid and almost all his army were destroyed.


[Comment] Rægnald was a grandson of Ímar and a member of the Uí Ímair.  It was the Norse-Gaelic of the Uí Ímair family and ruled from York in Northumbria.


[16] Norwegians of Northumbria and Britons of Strathclyde


1) Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 924: And then (Constantine) the king of Scots and all the nation of Scots chose him (King Edward) as father and lord; and [so also did] Rægnald and Eadwulf’s sons and all those who live in Northumbria, both English and Danish and Norwegians and others, and also the king of the Strathclyde Britons and all the Strathclyde Britons.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 104]


2) Canterbury Manuscript (F)


A.D. 924: Here King Edward was chosen as father and lord by the king of Scots (Constantine) and by the Scots, and King Rægnald, and by all the Northumbrians, and also by the king (probably Ywain) of the Strathclyde Britons, and by all the Strathclyde Britons.

 

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 105]


[17] Constantine, king of the Scots


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 924: And Sitric perished, and king Athelstan succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbria; and he governed all the kings who were in the island; first Hywel, king of the West Welsh, and Constantine, king of Scots, and Owain of Gwent, and Ealdred, Ealdwulf’s offspring, from Bamburgh. And they confirmed peace with pledges and with oaths in a place which is named River’s Meeting on 12 <i>July</i>; and they forbade all devil-worship and then parted in concord.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 107]


[Comment] Gwent may well be a mistake, and the Owain the same Owain, king of Cumbria.  


[18] Owen, king of the Cumbrians


A.D. 934: Fugato deinde Owino rege Cumbrorum, et Constantino rege Scottorum, terrestri et navali exercitu Scotiam sibi subjugando perdomuit.

[Arnold, Thomas: Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis by Symeon (London, 1882), Vol. I, p. 76]


[Translation] He (Æthelstan) then put to flight Owen, king of the Cumbrians and Constantin, king of the Scots; and with an army on land and in ships he subdued Scotland, subjugating it to himself.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 68]


[19] The Scots and Cumbrians


A.D. 937: Quarto post haec anno, hoc est, DCCCCXXXVII. Dominicae nativitatis anno, apud Weondune, quod alio nomine Etbrunnanwerc, vel Brunnanbyrig appellatur, pugnavit contra Onlaf, Guthredi quondam regis filium, qui DC et XV navibus advenerat, secum habens contra Ethelstanum auxilia regum praefatorum, scilicet Scottorum et Cumbrorum.


[Arnold, Thomas: Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis by Symeon (London, 1882), Vol. I, p. 76]


[Translation] In the fourth year after [his invasion of Scotland,] that is, in the 937th year of the Lord's nativity, [Ethelstan] fought at Wendun, (which by another name is called At Burnswark or Brunnanburgh, against the son of the former king Godfrey, Olaf, who had come with six hundred and fifteen ships having with him against Ethelstan the aid of the aforesaid kings to wit of the Scots and of the Cumbrians.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 70-71]


[20] Olaf Sitricsson (Amlaíb Cuarán Sigtryggsson)


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 941: Here the Northumbrians belied their pledges, and chose Olaf (Sitricsson) from Ireland as their king.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 111]


[21] Olaf Sitricsson


Winchester Manuscript (A)

A.D. 944: Here King Edmund brought all Northumbria into his domain, and caused to flee away two kings, Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 111]


[22] Malcolm, king of Scots


Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 945: Here King Edmund raided across all the land of Cumbria and ceded it to Malcolm, king of Scots, on the condition that he would be his co-operator both on sea and on land.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 110]


[23] Malcolm, king of Scots


Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 946 [948]: Here King Edmund passed away on St. Augustine’s Day; and he had the kingdom six and a half years. And then his brother the ætheling Eadred succeeded to the kingdom, and reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted.


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 946: And then after him (King Edmund) his brother the ætheling Eadred, succeede to the kingdom, and reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 112]


[24] Olaf Sitricsson


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 949: Here Olaf Curaran came to the land of Northumbria.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[25] Olaf Sitricsson


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 952: Here the Northumbrians drove out King Olaf and accepted Eric, son of Harald.

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[26] Eric (blood-axe) son of Harald


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 954: Here the Northumbrians drove out Eric, and Eadred succeeded to the kingdom of Northumbria.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[27] Kenneth, king of Scots, Malcolm, king of Cumbrians


A.D. 973: Edgar, the peaceful king of the English, . . . was anointed king. Then after a time he sailed with a huge fleet round northern Britain, 3 and landed at Chester. And his eight under-kings met him as he commanded: — to wit, Kenneth, king of the Scots; Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians; Maccus, king of very many islands; and five others, Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil; and swore that they would be his faithful helpers both on land and on sea. And on a certain day he entered a boat with them, and, placing them at the oars, himself took the rudder's helm, and steered skilfully through the stream of the river Dee, while all the crowd of earls and nobles accompanied him in similar craft; and he proceeded from the palace to the monastery of St. John the Baptist. And after praying there he returned with the same pomp. And as he entered it he is reported to have said to his nobles that then only should any of his successors be able to boast himself king of the English when so many kings submitted to him, and he obtained a display of such honours.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 70-71]


[Comment] Translated from Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 142-3]


[28] Eugenius the Bald, king of the Cumbrians


Simeon of Durham


A.D. 1018: Ingens bellum apud Carrum1 gestum est inter Scottos et Anglos, inter Huctredum filium Waldef, comitem Northymbrorum et Malcolmum filium Cyneth, regem Scottorum. Cum quo fuit Eugenius Calvus, rex Lutinensium.


[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 79]


[Translation] A great battle between the Scots and Angles was fought at Carrum between Huctred, son of Waldef, earl of Northumbrians, and Malcolm son of Cyneth, king of Scots, with whom there was in the battle Eugenius the Bald, king of the Cumbrians.

 

[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 527]


Note: (1) Modern historians identify 'Carrum' with 'Carham' on the southside of the River Tweed. For the Battle of Carham, see the following webpage by the Carham 1018 Society and blog by John Morton.


[29] Malcolm, Mælbeth and Iehmarc


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 1031: Here Cnut went to Rome, and in the same year he went to Scotland, and Malcolm, the king of Scots, submitted to him – and two others, Mælbeth and Iehmarc.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 157, 159]


[30] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1034: Malcolm, king of Scots, died, and Machethad succeeded him.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 528]


[31] Suibne son of Cinaed


A.D. 1034: Suibne m. Cinaedha, ri Gall-Gaidhel, mortuus est.


[Translation] Suibne son of Cinaed, king of the Gallgaedil, died.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 472-3]


[32] Macbeth, king of Scots


A.D. 1052: Osbern, surnamed Pentecost, and his companion Hugh gave up their castles; and going with the leave of earl Leofric through his earldom to Scotland, were received by Macbeoth, king of the Scots.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 537]


[33] Macbeth, king of Scots


[A.D. 1053.] A.D. 1035: Syvard, duke of the Northumbrians, entered Scotland with a large army, at the command of king Edwin; and having given battle to Mactheath, the king of Scotland, he defeated him, and placed Malcolm on the throne, as the king had commanded.


[Stevenson, Rev. Joseph: The History of William of Newburgh (London, 1855), Vol. IV, pt. II, p. 386]


[34] Malcolm, king of Cumbrians


A.D. 1054: Siward, the valiant duke of the Northumbrians, by king Edward's order, went to Scotland with an army of cavalry and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with Macbeoth, king of Scots; and having slain many Scottish soldiers and all the Normans whom we mentioned above, he routed Macbeoth, and, as the king directed, appointed Malcolm, son of the king of the Cumbrians, king. Yet in that battle his own son, and many of the Angles and Danes, fell.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 538]


[35] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1059: Kinsi, archbishop of York, and Egelwin, bishop of Durham, and Tosti, earl of York, conducted king Malcolm to king Eadward.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[36] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1061: Aldred, archbishop of York, went to Rome with earl Tosti, and received the pall from pope Nicolas. Meanwhile, Malcolm, king of Scots, furiously ravaged the earldom of his sworn brother earl Tosti, and violated the peace of St. Cuthbert in the island of Lindisfarne. In the same year pope Nicolas died, and Alexander succeeded him, being the hundred and forty-ninth pope.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[37] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1068: Marleswen and Gospatric, and some nobles of the Northumbrian race,—to avoid the severity of the king, and dreading that like others they might be put in confinement, taking with them Eadgar Atheling and his mother Agatha, with his two sisters Margaret and Christina, —went by sea to Scotland, and there, by the favour of Malcolm, king of Scots, they passed the winter.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[38] Malcolm, king of Scots


[A.D. 1070.] A.D. 1051: Malcolm, the king of the Scot, devastated England as far as Cleveland, and married Margaret.


[Stevenson, Rev. Joseph: The History of William of Newburgh (London, 1855), Vol. IV, pt. II, p. 387]


Britons, Angles and Gall-Ghàidheil (Foreign Gael)


~ 730 to 1070 ~