Index

Solway Firth

Early Medieval Documents

Containing references to the Lands, Lords and People

Of Gall Gaidheil (Galloway) in SW Scotland


[1] Affrica daughter of Fergus de Galwedia


1102-1125: Olavus films Godredi Crouan coepit regnare super omnes insulas, regnavitque XL.ta annis. Erat autem vir pacificus, habuitque omnes reges Yberniae et Scotiae ita sibi confoederatos, nt nullus auderet perturbare regnum insularum omnibus diebus ejus. Accepit autem uxorem Affricam nomine filiam Fergus de Galwedia, de qua genuit Godredum. Habuit et concubinas plures, de quibus fihios tres, scilicet Reignaldum, Lagmannum, et Haraldum, et filias multas generavit, quarum una nupsit Sumerledo regulo Herergaidel, quae fuit causa ruinae totius regni insularum. Genuit namque ex ea filios IV., Dubgallum, Raignaldum, Engus, et Olavum, do quibus latius in sequentibus dicemus.


[Translation] Olave, son of Godred Crovan, began to reign over all the Isles, and he reigned forty years. He was a man of peace, and was in such close alliance with all the kings of Ireland and Scotland, that no one ventured to disturb the kingdom of the Isles during his time. He took a wife named Affrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway, by whom he had issue Godred. He had also many concubines, by whom he had issue three sons; Reginald, Lagman, and Harold, and many daughters, one of whom was married to Sumerled, Lord of Argyll; and this was the cause of the ruin of the whole kingdom of the Isles; for he had issue by her four sons, Dugald, Reginald, Angus, and Olave, of whom we shall speak more fully hereafter.


[Munch, P.A. (editor) and Rev. Goss (translator): Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), Vol. I]


[Comment] The main part of the Chronicle is believed to have been written sometime between 1261 and 1262 at Rushen Abbey on the Isle of Man. The Cistercian abbey was decated in 1257.


[2] Gilla Aldan, bishop of Casdida Casa (Whithorn)


December, 1125: Honorius Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilecto filio electo de Candida Casa, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Cui alii a Domino praeesse conceditur, nulla suis digne subesse praelatis superbia convincatur: ideoque per praesentia scripta tibi mandamus, ut ad carissimum fratrem nostrum Turstinum Eboracensem Archiepiscopum tanquam ad proprium metropolitanum tuum consecrandus accedas: et ab ipsius manu, praesente Sancti Spiritus gratia cum humilitatis devotione consecrationem accipias. Data Laterani quinto idus Decembri.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (Glasgow, 1905), p. 53, no. lxiii]


[Translation] Bishop Honorius, servant of the servants of God, to his beloved son the elected of Whithorn, greeting and apostolic benediction. He to whom it is granted by God to rule another, let him not be prevented by any pride from being befittingly subject to those preferred before him. And therefore by the present writings we command thee to go to be consecrated to our dearest brother Thurstan, archbishop of York, as to thy proper metropolitan; and to receive consecration from his hand with the devotion of humility, the favour of the Holy Spirit being present. Given at the Lateran, the fifth before the Ides of December.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 159]


[3] Gilla Aldan, bishop of Casdida Casa


1126 (?): Domino et patri suo reverendo Thurstino Dei gratia Eboracensis provinciae metropolitano, Gilla Aldan humilis electus Candidae Casae salutem et obedientiam. Cognovi, tam scriptis patrum authenticis quam veredicis antiquorum virorum testimoniis, quod episcopus Candidae Casae ab antiquo debeat ad matrem suam Eboracensem metropolim respicere, et in his quae ad Deum pertinent obtemperare: quapropter ego Gilla Aldan Candidae Casae electus sanctae Eboracensis ecclesiae, et tibi Turstine et successoribus tuis canonice instituendis debitam subjectionem a sanctis patribus institutam et canonicam obedientiam me amodo servaturum promitto.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (Glasgow, 1905), p. 54, no. lxiv]


[Translation] To his reverend lord and father Thurstan, by God's grace metropolitan of the church of York, Gilla-Aldan, humble bishop-elect of Whithorn, greeting and obedience. I have learned both in publicly authenticated documents and in the truthful testimony of ancient men that the bishop of Whithorn from of old owes respect to his mother the metropolis of York, and submission to her in the things which pertain to God. Wherefore I, Gilla-Aldan. the elected of Whithorn, promise to preserve henceforth due subjection, as appointed by the holy fathers, and canonical obedience to the holy church of York; and to thee, archbishop Thurstan, and to thy successors canonically appointed.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 159-60]


[Comment] Bishop Gilla Aldan was consecrated by the Archbishop of York in A.D. 1127, after making this profession of obedience to his metropolitan Stubb's Acta Pontificum Ebor. (Twysden, 1720.)


[4] Strathyrewen in Galwegia


1126-1128: Charter by King David to the Abbey of Dunfermline

David Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, Constantino et omnibus pertinentibus ad ecclesiam Sanctae Trinitatis hominibus, salutem. Praecipio quatenus omnes consuetudines quas juste eidem ecclesiae debetis sine contradictione reddatis et operi insistite quod ibi inceptum est sine aliqua dilatione. Quod si contempnitis facere, praecipio meo praeposito Suuene ne hoc patiatur et ut sit priori in adjutorium ut ecclesia ab eis habeat sicut a meis hominibus habeo. Teste Edwardo capellano. Apud Strathirewin in Galwegia.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 70, no. lxxxv]


[Comment] Original in the Registrum de Dunfermelyn by the Bannatnyne Club, p. 13, no. 18. This charter is addressed to Constantine and to the men of the church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, who seem to have refused to render to the church its dues and to have hindered the building of the new monastery. It orders the King's ‘praepositus,' Swain, not to suffer this neglect; he must assist the Prior of Dunfermline so that the church may get from its tenants as much as the King gets from his men. Dated a year or so before 1128, when King David turned the priory into an abbey and elected Gaufrid, prior of Christ’s Church, Canterbury, the first abbot of Dunfermline.


Strathyrewen is the vale or valley of Irvine in North Ayrshire, and was an important seaport in the middle ages. It was spelt as Yrewin c. 1140 and became the seat of Hugh de Moreville, who was appointed of High Constable of Scotland by King David by November, 1140.  With Largs, Hugh was granted the lordship of Cunningham, the northern division of Ayrshire, about the time he was appointed constable by king. He is mentioned in another charter also issued by the king at Strathyrewen to the church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline probably about the time the abbey was founded in 1128.


[5] Strathyrewen in Galwegia


1128-1130: Charter by King David to the Abbey of Dunfermline

David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis hominibus suis, salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et abbati et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, pro anima patris mei et matris meae et pro animabus omnium antecessorum meorum et successorum, ut homines sui sint liberi ab omni operatione castellorum et pontium et omnium aliorum operum. Quare volo et precipio quatenus haec libertas eis in perpetuum conservetur inconcussa. Testibus Johanne Episcopo et Gillemichel comite et Roberto de Brus et Hugone de Moreuille. Apud Strathyrewen in Galwegia.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 69, no. lxxxiv]


[Abstract] King David grants to the church of Dunfermline and the monks serving there that its tenants and vassal be exempt and freedom from all work on castles and bridges and other like work and orders that these liberties be preserved to them unchanged forever.


[Comment] Original in the Registrum de Dunfermelyn by the Bannatnyne Club, p. 17, no. 31. Dated by the erection of the church of Dunfermline to abbatial statue and the death of Gillemichel, earl of Fife in 1130.


[6] Fergus de Galweia, and Uchtred, Fergus’ son


1136: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

[Abstract] David, king of Scots, grants to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow part of Partick, which Ascelin archdeacon of Glasgow held of the king, by the marches by which Ailsi and Tocca held the land when it was in the king’s demesne.  In future the archdeacon is to pay the church the rent he used to pay to the king, namely one merk of silver yearly for the rest of his life. When the archdeacon dies the land shall remain in the service of the church. Witnessed by ‘Herberto Abbate de Rochesburc, Willelmo cancellario, Willelmo filio Dunecan, Malis Comite, Dunecano Comite, Fergus de Galweia, Aad cum barba, Malduueni mac murdac, Malodeni de Scona, Malodeni marescal, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duunenald fratre ejus, Uchtred filio Fergus, Hugone Britone, Herberto camerario, Gileberto fimboga, Gileberto de Striuelin, Dufoter de Calateria’. Apud Glasgow.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 85, no. civ]


[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis by the Maitland Club, no. 3.  It is stated in a charter by Bishop Herbert that King David granted part of Partick on the day of dedication of Glasgow Cathedral; and as it is probable that this charter is that referred to, which has been commonly dated to July 1136, the month in which the Cathedral was dedicated.  This charter contains the earliest reference to Fergus of Galloway.


[7] Fergus de Galweia, Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother


1136: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Baronibus ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis totius regni sui tam Gawensibus quam Anglicis et Scotis salutem.  Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti Kentigerni de Glasgu in perpetuam elemosinam totam decimam meam de meo chan, in animalibus et porcis de Stratgriua et Cunegan et de Chul et de Karric unoquoque anno nisi tune quum ego ipse illuc venero perendinens et ibidem meum chan comedens. Testibus Willelmo Cumin cancellario, Hugone de Moreuilla, Fergus de Galweia, Hugone Britone, Waltero filio Alani, Alwino Mac Archil, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Dunenald fratre suo. Apud Cadihou.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 95, no. Cxxv]


[Abstract] David, king of Scots, to his barons, officers, and all his liegemen of his whole kingdom, as well his Galloway men as English and Scotsmen.  It announces that he has granted to God and to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow, in perpetual alms, the tenth part of his cain in cattle and pigs due to him annually from Strathgryfe, Cunningham, Kyle and Carrick (all districts in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire), in each year except when the King himself stays in those districts and consumes his cain.


[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 9.  Given the similarity of phraseology and listing of witnesses, it has been suggested by Prof. Barrow that this charter was issued at a date close to no. 11, if not the same day. Walter son of Alan doesn’t appear to have entered the king’s service as steward before 1136, whilst William Cumin remained chancellor until 1141.  The charter was granted at the royal seat of Cadzow near Hamilton in Lanarkshire, probably shortly before King David’s planned invasion of England in August, 1138. Cadzow was the royal centre of the old kingdom of Strathclyde, and then, the re-branded, Cumbria.


[8] Fergus de Galweia, Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother


1136-1141: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Justitiae suae, vicecomitibus baronibus et omnibus ministris suis totius Cumberlandiae salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti Kentigerni de Glasgu, octavum denarium de omnibus placitis meis per totam Cumbriam quae ibi placitabantur aut in denariis aut pecunia. Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio ut praedicta ecclesia hanc suam partem ita libere et quiete et honorifice teneat in perpetuum, sicut elemosina liberius et quietius potest dari et teneri. Testibus Willelmo Cumino, cancellario, Fergus de Galweia, Hugone Britone, Waltero filio Alani, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duuenald fratre suo, Alwino Mac Archil. Apud Cadihou.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 96, no. cxxvi]


[Abstract] David, king of Scots, to the king’s justices, sheriffs, barons, and all his officers of Cumberland, and announces that he has granted to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow, the eighth penny of all his pleas throughout Cumbria, both in money and cattle, and he orders that the church may enjoy this share as freely as any ‘elemosina’ can be given and held.


[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 10.  This charter was almost certainly granted the same day as no. 10, at Cadzow in Lanarkshire, probably sometime before King David’s planned invasion of England in 1138.


[9] The nation of Galwegians


1136: Extracts of Ailred of Rievaulx’s Account of the King David’s incursion into Northumbria

[Translation]  David, king of the Scots, .. gathered an army and harried Northumbria with slaughter and fire. But he conceded so much to the church of Hexham as not only to suffer none to touch anything which pertained to it, but also to decree that as many as could flee thither and carry with them aught of their goods should rejoice in his peace.


Hence it was that, when the most cruel nation of the Galwensium raged with unheard-of brutality, and spared not sex nor age, our countrymen who were with king [David] were moved by compassion and sent many, rescued from their hands, to Hexham, as to a sure defence of their safety.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 171, see also James Rainer’s History of the Priory of Hexham Vol. 1 in The publication of the Surtees Society (Durham, 1864), Vol. Xliv, p. 183]


[10] The Picts commonly called Galwegians


January, 1138: Extracts of Richard de Hexhams Account of King David’s incursion into Northumbria

Coadunatus autem erat iste nefandus exercitus de Normannis, Germanis, Anglis, de Northymbranis et Cumbris, de Teswetadala et Lodonea, de Pictis. qui vul.qo Galleweienses d icnntur, et Scottis nee erat qui eorum numerum sciret. Infiniti enim absque omni mandato, aut deprsedandi amore, aut occasione ulciscendi, aut sola voluntate nocendi, qualibet regio ilia habundabat, se supradictis commiscuerimt.

[Howett, Richard: Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I (London, 1896), Vol. III, p. 152]


[Translation] Now that wicked army was composed of Normans, Germans, English, of Northumbrians and Cumbrians, of [men of] Teviotdale and Lothian, of Picts (who are commonly called Galwegians) and of Scots ; and none might know their number. For wherever the district had wealth an endless number joined themselves to the above-named, without any command, from love of plunder or for the opportunity of revenge, or from the mere desire to do harm.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 181]


Richaed de Hexham narrates an incident during the campaign, where he calls the Galwegian’s Picts.


[Translation] Nevertheless the Picts (Picti) at first, as they advanced with a great rush to the river Tyne, which flows near that vill [of Warden?], intended to have destroyed [Hexham] like the rest. But immediately before they crossed the aforesaid river two of their number were slain by their compatriots,  and the rest perceived this, and turned back again in terror. Moreover, two of the same nation of Picts (Pictorum) came to a certain oratory of St. Michael the archangel, situated on the same northern side of the river Tyne, and pertaining to the aforesaid church of Hexham. They broke open its door, and took away with them what they found there. But the vengeance of God was not lacking. For they were presently given up to a devil, and deprived of their senses; and as madness lashed them on they ranged hither and thither by night and by day through woods and fields, in the sight of all; and first the one broke his own neck upon the stones, then the other, hamstrung by a certain man, drowned himself in the Tyne: each of them perishing miserably, punished in either case by death. When thus these things had taken place the rest of the army were terrorstricken and dared invade no more the possessions of the aforesaid church of Hexham.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 183]


[11] The Picts (Galwegians) again in Northumbria


April, 1138: Richard de Hexham’s Account of King David’s 2nd incursion into Northumbria

[Translation] But immediately in the first week after the celebration of Easter was over, on the sixth day of the week, the oft-mentioned king of Scotland returned to Northumbria again with his wicked army, and destroyed first the sea-board province, which the other time he had left untouched, and whatever else besides this he had anywhere passed over unharmed and then the greatest part of the land of St. Cuthbert, in the eastern district between Durham and the sea …..


For while his men were so employed the king tarried with his knights not far from Durham. And there a serious sedition arose because of a certain woman, and the Picts (Picti) threatened to destroy the king and his followers. And while he was in much anxiety over this alarm behold it was published by a false rumour that a very great army from south England was approaching. Therefore he left the food which had been made ready for him, and fled, with no man pursuing, towards his own land with all his men. And he turned aside to the town of Norham, which is in the land of St. Cuthbert, and besieged it, attempting by various methods and machines to storm and take it. And while he remained at the siege he sent his nephew William Fitz Duncan with the Picts (Pictis) and part of his army on an expedition into Yorkshire. And they came thither and gained the victory, for the people's sins, and in great part destroyed by sword and fire the possessions of a certain noble monastery which is situated in Furness, and the province which is called Craven. They spared therefore no rank, no age, neither sex, no condition ; and first slaughtered as pitiably as they could children and relatives in the sight of their kindred, and masters in the sight of their servants, and conversely and husbands before the eyes of their wives then, alas !promiscuously with the other women and with their spoil, they carried off as well the noble widowed matrons and the chaste maidens. Stripped also, and bound and fastened together in troops by cords and thongs, they drove them away before them, goading them with their spears and arrows.


Thereafter when these were apportioned with the spoil certain of [the enemy] were moved to pity, and set some of them free, giving them up to the church of St. Mary in Carlisle. But the Picts (Picti) and many others took with them to their country those who fell to their lot. And then these bestial men, who regard as nothing adultery and incest and the other crimes, after they were weary of abusing these most hapless creatures after the manner of brute beasts, either made them theip slaves or sold them to other barbarians for cows.


Now so soon as the king of Scotland learned of this [victory at Clitheroe] he rejoiced with his followers with great joy, and began to assail the aforesaid fortress [of Norham] more vigorously than usual …


Then after devastating the crops around [Bamborough] and around Mitford, the town of William Bertram, and in many other places throughout Northumbria, he crossed over the river Tyne, and entering the land of St. Cuthbert awaited the part of his army which had not yet come to him. Then after devastating the crops around [Bamborough] and around Mitford, the town of William Bertram, and in many other places throughout Northumbria, he crossed over the river Tyne, and entering the land of St. Cuthbert awaited the part of his army which had not yet come to him. And without delay assembled to him by his command the Picts (Picti) and the Cumbrians (Cumbri) and the men of Carlisle (Carlel) and of the surrounding district. When therefore his whole army was collected he rejoiced with excessive joy, because it seemed to him abundant and invincible: for in truth it was vast, consisting of more than twenty-six thousand men.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 185-190]


[12] Ulgric and Donald, and the Battle of the Standard


August 22, 1138: Ailred of Rievaulx’s Account of the Battle of Standard

[Translation] Meanwhile king [David] gathered together his earls and the highest nobles of his realm, and began to discuss with them the array of the battle. And it pleased the greater number that all the armed men, knights and archers whom they had should go before the rest of the army, so that armed men should attack armed men, and knights engage with knights, and arrows resist arrows.


The Galwegians (Galwenses) opposed this, saying that it was their right to fill the front line, to make the first attack upon the enemy, to arouse by their courage the rest of the army. The others said that it was dangerous if at the first assault unarmed met armed men; for if the first rank sustained not the brunt of battle but yielded to flight the courage of even the brave would be readily dispelled. None the less the Galwegian (Galwenses) persisted, demanding that their right be granted to them.


“For why art thou fearful, king," said they; “and why dost thou so greatly dread those iron tunics which thou seest afar off? We surely have iron sides, a breast of bronze, a mind void of fear; and our feet have never known flight, nor our backs a wound. What gain were their hauberks to the Gaul (Gallis) at Clitheroe? Did not these men unarmed, as they say, compel them to throw away their hauberks, to forget their helmets, to leave behind their shields? Let then your prudence see, O king, what it is to have confidence in these, which in a strait are more burden than defence. We gained at Clitheroe the victory over mail-clad men: we to-day shall use as shield the valour of our minds, and vanquish these with spears."


After this was said, when the king seemed rather to incline to the counsels of his knights, Malisse, earl of Strathearn (sic. Malisse come Stradarne), was greatly wroth, and said: "Why is it, king, that thou reliest rather upon the will of Gauls, since none of them with their arms to-day will advance before me, unarmed, in the battle. And Alan de Percy (Alanus de Perci), base-born son of the great Alan - A most vigorous knight, and in military matters highly distinguished - took these words ill; and turning to the earl he said," A great word hast thou spoken, and one which for thy life thou canst not make good this day." Then the king, restraining both, lest a disturbance should suddenly arise out of this altercation, yielded to the will of the Galwegians (Galwensium).


The second line the king’s son arranged with great wisdom; with himself the knights and archers, adding to their number the Cumbrensibus (Cumbrians) and Tevidalensibus (Teviotdalesmen).

 

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 198-99; names in italics and brackets, Latin form in Ailred of Rievaulx, De Standardo in Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, edited by Richard Howett (London, 1896), Vol. III, p. 189-191]


[Second section on Galwegians]


And the column of the Galwegians (Galwensium) after their custom gave vent thrice to a yell of horrible sound, and attacked the southerns in such an onslaught that they compelled the first spearmen to forsake their post; but they were driven off again by the strength of the knights, and [the spearmen] recovered their courage and strength against the foe.


And when the frailty of the Scottish lances was mocked by the denseness of iron and wood they drew their swords and attempted to contend at close quarters. But the southern flies swarmed forth from the caves of their quivers, and flew like closest rain; and irksomely attacking the opponents' breasts, faces and eyes, very greatly impeded their attack.


Like a hedgehog with its quills, so would you see a Galwegians (Galwensem) bristling all round with arrows, and none the less brandishing his sword and in blind madness rushing forward now smite a foe, now lash the air with useless strokes.


[Third section on Galwegians]


Then the Galwegian (Galwenses) could sustain no longer the shower of arrows, the swords of the knights; and took to flight after two of their leaders had been slain, Ulgric (Wulgrico) and Donald (Duuenaldo). Moreover, the column of the men of Laodensium (Lothian) scarcely awaited the first attack, but immediately dispersed.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 202-4; names in italics and brackets, Latin form in Ailred of Rievaulx, De Standardo in Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, edited by Richard Howett (London, 1896), Vol. III, p. 196-7]


[Comment] The Battle of the Standard sometimes called the Battle of Northallerton took place on 22 August, 1138, on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire. The Scottish forces were led by King David and the English were commanded by William of Aumale. It is generally assumed the Galwegian army was drawn from Fergus’s kingdom of Galloway. Whilst this seems plausible, it may also refer to the men drawn from greater Galloway, which in the time of King David, covered Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire.  Fergus and the sons of Dunegal, Radulf and Dovenald, were regional lords. Ailred of Rievaulx tells us, Ulgric and Donald were two of the Galwegian leaders, suggesting others were also present at the battle.


In the Chronicle of John de Hexham, the Galwegians are called Picts. He narrates ‘and so the Scots and the Picts held out with difficulty from the first hour when the struggle commenced to the third, for they saw themselves pierced and transfixed with arrows, and overwhelmed and distressed.


[13] Fergus de Galloway


1139: Rex antem Scottiae et Henricus filius ejus, cum omnibus suis, extunc quamdiu viverent S[tephano] regi Anglia per omnia pacifici et fidelissimi existere debebant et ut de fidelitate eorum securior esset, filium Cospatrici comitis, et filium Hugonis de Morvilla, et filium Fergusi comitis, et filium Mel-- et filium Mac--, scilicet duorum comitum de Scottia, ei obsides dare debebant.

[Howett, Richard: Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I (London, 1896), Vol. III, p. 177-8]


[Abstract] But the king of Scotland and Henry his son, with all their subjects, thenceforth so long as they lived were to continue at peace with and most loyal to king Stephen of England in all things. And that he might be the surer of their loyalty they were to give him as hostages the son of earl Gospatric, and the son of Hugh de Moreville, and the son of earl Fergus and the son of Mal-- and the son of Mac--,—the sons, that is, of two earls of Scotland.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 214-15]


[Comment] David, king of Scots, and Henry his, gave as hostages to Stephen, the sons of Earl Gospatrick II of Dunbar, Hugh de Morville, Fergus of Galloway, Earl Malise of Strathern and Earl MacDuff of Fife.


[14] Abbey of Dundrennan


1142: Eodem anno fundata eft abbatia de Dundraynan in Galwaya.


[Chronica de Mailros by the Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1835), p. 72]


[Translation] In the same year the abbey of Dundraynan, in Galloway, was founded.


[15] Sons of Harold, brother of Olave, collect their fleet and sail to Galloway


1142: Eodenm anno tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi, qui nutriti suerant apud Dubliniam, congregantes magnam turbam hominum et omnes profugas regis, venerunt ad Manniam postulantes ab codem rege medietatem totius regni insularuni sibi dan. Rex autem cum audisset, placare eos volens, respondit super hoc consilium se habituruni; cunique diem et locuni constituissent, ubi concilium haberi debuisset, interim illi necjuissimi de morte regis inter se tractabant. Constituta antern die conve nerunt utueque partes, illi vero cum suis ex altera. Regnaldus autem medianus frater, qii euni per cussurus erat, stabat seorsiin loquens cum quodam viro de principibus terr~e. Cumque vocatus venisset ad regem, ver tens se ad eum quasi salutans eum, securim fulgentem in altum levavit, et caput regis uno ictu amputavit. Perpetrato autem tanto scelere statim terrain diviserunt inter se. Paucis diebus transactis, congregata classe, transfretaverunt ad Galwediam, volentes sibi subjugare. Galwedienses autem conglobati et ruagno impetu facto, congressi sunt cum cis. Liii statiin terga vertentes, fugerunt cum magna confusione ad Manniam, omnesque Galwedienses qui in ea habita bant quosdam jugulaverunt, alios expulerunt.


[Translation] In the same year three sons of Harold, the brother of Olave, who had been brought up in Dublin, assembling a large body of men, and among them all the refugees from the dominions of Godred, came to Man, and demanded from the king one half of the whole kingdom of the Isles for themselves. The king having heard their application, and being desirous to pacify them, answered that he would take advice on the subject. When the day and place for holding a meeting had been agreed upon, these most wicked men spent the interval in planning the death of the king. On the appointed day both parties met at the port called Ramsey, and sat down in order, the king and his followers on one side, and they with theirs on the other. Reginald, the second brother, who was to give the fatal blow, stood apart, speaking to one of the chiefs of the country. On being summoned to approach the king, turning to him as if in the act of saluting, he raised his gleaming battleaxe on high, and at a blow cut off the king's head. As soon as this atrocious act was perpetrated they divided the country between them. After the lapse of a few days they collected their fleet, and sailed to Galloway with the purpose of conquering it. But the men of Galloway, forming a compact body, rushed upon them with great impetuosity; whereupon the invaders turned and fled in great confusion to Man, and massacring some, expelled the rest of the Galloway residents in the island.


[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), Vol. I]


[16] Uchred son of Fergus, Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother


1150: Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews to Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow

[Abstract] Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, states that he has granted “et per libram saisisse” the church of Lohworuora to Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, “sicut de possessione Glasguensis”. The King and his Henry were present and assented to the grant. The Bishop reserved to the church of St. Andrews all Episcopal rights in the church of Lohworuora as in other churches in Lothian.  Witnessed by ‘Gregorio Dunchelden episcopo, Andrea Chatan eciscopo, Gaufrido abate de Dunfermelin, Ernaldo abate de Calceho, Alfwino abate de Sancta Cruce, Willelmo abate de Striuelin, Roberto priore de Sancto Andreae, Osberto priore de Sancta Cruce, Thoma priore de Scone, Thor archidiacono, Ascelino archidiacono, Eyolfo decano, Waltero cancellario Regis, Ingelleran cancellario comitis, Magistro Laurentio, Jordane Heyrun, Waltero capellano de Lillesclive, Nicholao clerico, Thoma de Linnithuc, Dunecan comite, Hugone de Moreuilla, Willelmo de Sumervilla, Cospatrico filio Waltheof, Waltero de Lindeseai, Willelmo fratre ejus, Bernardo de Boilond, Willelmo de Vesci, Odenel de Unfranuilla, Waltero de Bolebech, Alfwino Rennere, Eadwardo constabulario, Thor filio Suein, Willelmo de Graham, Arturo Finboga, Rogero nepote episcopi Sancti Andreae, Uhtred filio Fergus, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duuenald fratre ejus, Baldewino flam., Hug. Filio Fresechin’.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 185, no. ccxxx]


[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 11.  Lawrie questions the authenticity of this charter, as the church of Lohworuora, or Locherwort, belonged to the monastery of Scone.


[17] The men of Galloway


1150-1153: Charter by King David to Robert de Brus

D[avid] Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis et Anglis et Galweiensibus salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Roberto de Brus in feudo et hereditate illi et heredi suo in foresto, vallum de Anant ex utraque parte aquae de Anant sicut divisae sunt a forest de Seleschirche quantum terra sua protenditur versus Stradnit et versus Clud, libere et quiete sicut aliud forestum suum tenetur melius et liberius. Quare defend ne ullus venetur in praedicto forest nisi per ipsum super forisfactum decem librarum et ne ullus eat per praedictum forestum nisi recta via nominate. Testibus Waltero cancellario, et Hugone de Morevilla, et Waltero filio Alani, et Odenello de Umframvilla, et Waltero de Lindeseia, et Ricardo de Morevilla. Apud Stap[ilgo]rtune.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 162, no. cxcix]


[Translation] David, King of Scots to all the good men of his whole land, ‘Francis, Anglicis and Galweiensibus’. Know that I have given and granted to Robert de Brus in fee and heritage, to him and his heirs “in forest”, the valley of Anant on both sides of the water of Anant, as the marches are from the forest of Seleschirche, as far as his land extends towards Stradnitt (Nithsdale) and towards Clud (Clyde).  Wherefore, I forbid that anyone hunt in the foresaid forest, unless by his authority, on pain of forfeiture of ten pounds, or that anyone go through the aforesaid forest unless by a straight road appointed. Witnessed by Walter the chancellor, Hugh de Morville, Walter fitz Alan, Odenel de Unframville, Walter de Lindesia and Richard de Moville. [Dated] at Staplegordon.

[Fraser, Sir William: The Annandale Family Book of the Johnstones Earls and Marquises of Annandale (1894), Vol. 1, p. 129]


[Comment] Printed, with facsimile in The National Manuscripts of Scotland, Vol. 1, No. 20, and original in Duchy of Lancaster Charters.  A similar translation is also given in Joseph Bain’s Calender of Documents Relating to Scotland, A.D. 1108-1272, Vol. 1, p. 6.  Lawrie dates this charter to about 1147, Bain has it dated between 1124 and 1140, and G. W. S. Barrow assigns 1150 to 1153, which is followed here.  The valley of the Anant, that is Annandale, is separated from Selkirkshire by Mirkside and Ettrick Pen; from Strathnith (Nithsdale) by a range of hills in Closeburn, Kirkmahoe and Tynwald; and from Clyde by Crawford.  


[18] Fergus de Galloway


1150-1155: Fergus, king of the Gallovidians


David rex Scotorum dedit terram de Torphigan

Feregus rex Galwicensium dedit terram de Galvyte


[W. Dugdale: Monasticon Anglicanum (1817-30), Vol. VI, p. 838]


[Comment] Notations are undated. Keith Stringer gives a tentative date between 1140 and 1160 (The Records of the Lords of Galloway). However, the Order of the Brethren of the Temple of Solomon, commonly called Templars or Knights of the Temple were granted the manor called Temple Hurste or Hirst in the West Riding of Yorkshire, by Ralph and William de Hastings in 1152 and the grant was confirmed, probably in 1155 by Henry de Lacy.  It was established a preceptory by 1160, when Robert Pirou was described as preceptor of Temple Hurst. The land of Galvyte has been identified as Galtway in Kirkcudbrightshire parish. However, Daphne Brooke thought it was located in the parish of Balmaclellan.


[19] The Fosse of Galwegians


1153-1157: Charter by William de Rosedale

[Abstract] William de Rossdale grants to the Hospital of St. Peter of York his land of Cresope by these bounds: - The fosse of the Galwegians (Galweiensis) and the ‘Rivulus’ running from then to Lydel, and on the other side of the fosse straight to the high moor, and so by the watershed of the moor as far as the old way of Roxburgh, and as said way falls into Cresope (Kershope) from above the shealings which were Eadulf’s. If their pasture therein is insufficient, they shall have it in his forest, and wood for building, and their swine ‘free of padnage’. Witness and consenting, Turgis his son, with these witnesses Robert de Laferted, William de Heriz, Richard the knight, Huctred son of Liulf, Adam de Bonefield, Hugh de Nuers, Warin Finemund, Humfrey the chaplain.

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307, Vol. II, p. 423, no. 11]


[Comment] Recorded in the “Roll of early grants by Scottish kings and nobles, and others to the Hospital of St. Peter of York” on 9 November, 1304 (Chancery Miscellenea, C 47/22/4(8)). In 1136, Stephen, king of England, granted Cumberland to David I. of Scotland, and in 1157 Malcolm IV., the latter’s youthful successor, re-granted the same territory to Henry II. Rossdale is Rosedale in Yorkshire. Kershope is in the old lordship and vale of Liddell, and Kershope Burn is and has been, the Border Line between England and Scotland since medieval times. The fosse of the Galweiensis is probably the Scots Dyke. A fosse is a long, narrow ditch (dyke) or moat dug as a fortification.


[20] Gauelensibus


1153-1165: [Abstract] Malcolm (Malcolon), king of Scots commands his justiciars, barons, sheriffs, servants and all others within the bishopric of Glasgow, ‘Frencis, Anglicis, Scottis (Scots), Walensibus, Gauelensibus’, to shew due reference to the bishop and archdeacon of Glasgow and to render teinds and other ecclesiastical  dues to their churches without opposition, just as the king has ordered teinds to be paid most fully throughout the other bishoprics of his realm, namely, in corn, flax, wool, cheese, butter, lambs, calves, piglets, horses and foals.  Moreover, if the sheriff himself should connive at such detention and or withhold his own teinds, the king’s justices were to take a forfeiture from the sheriff and cause the teinds withheld to be paid in full. Witnessed by ‘Walter de Lindesia, Robert Auenel, Radulf de Sol’, Odinell de Umframuill, Richard Cumin, Phillip de Colevill’.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, p. 272, no. 258]


[Comment] It has been suggested by Dauit Broun in ‘The Welsh identity of the kingdom of Strathclyde c.900-c.1200’, that this charter was produced by the Glasgow Cathedral establishment, and not by royal scribes.  Also the form of King Malcolm’s name (Malcolon) is paralleled only by Malcolonus, found uniquely in the great charter of confirmation to Kelso Abbey, dated to about 1159.  In his great charter to Kelso, King Malcolm confirmed his grandfather, David’s gift of a tenth of the yearly cain (tribute) of cattle, swine and cheeses from the four kadrez of the Galweia which he held in the life time of King Alexander.   


[21] Christian, bishop of Galloway


1154: Christianus in episcopum Galwaie, eodem die quo et rex Anglis Henricus, ab archiepiscopo Rotomagensi apud [B]ermundesiam consecrates est.


[Translation] Christian was consecrated as bishop of Galloway by the archbishop of Rouen, at Bermondsey, on the same day on which Henry [was consecrated] king of England.

[Anderson, Margorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938),  p. 127 & 188]

 

[22] Fleets of the Gall Gaedhil of Arran, Kintyre, Man and borders of Alba


1154: Coblach lá Toirrdhealbhach Ua c-Concobhair for muir timchell Ereann fo thuaith .i. loinges Duin Gaillmhe, Chonmaicne Mara, Fhear n-Umhaill, Ua n-Amhalgadha, & Ua Fiachrach, & An Cosnamhaigh Uí Dubhda h-i c-cennas forra, & ro airccset Tír Chonaill, & Inis Eóghain. Do-chuas ó Chenel Eoghain, & o Mhuircertach, mac Néill dar muir co ruaiclidis .i. go cendcadís longas Gall-Ghaoidhel Arann, Cinn Tíre, Manann & centair Alban archena,& mac Scelling í c-cennas forra, & iarna t-torracht h-i c-comhfhogus Innsi h-Eoghain ima c-comhráinicc dóibh& don loinges oile feachair cath longda co h-amnus aighthighe eatorra, & bháttar occan iomtuarccain ó prim co nóin, & marbhthar sochaidhe mhor do Chonnachtaibh imon c-Cosnamhaigh Ua n-Dubhda lásna h-allmhurachaibh. Ro mheabhaidh, foran sluagh n-allmhurach,& ro ládh a n-ár, & fhagbhait a longa, & ro benadh a fhiacla a mac Scelling.

[O’Donovan, John (editor and translator): Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters (Dublin, 1856), Vol. II, pp 1110-1113]


[Translation] A fleet was brought by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair on the sea, round Ireland northwards, i.e. the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach, and the Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda in command over them; and they plundered Tir-Conaill and Inis-Eoghain. The Cinel-Eoghain and Muircheartach, son of Niall, sent persons over sea to hire (and who did hire) the fleets of the Gall-Gaeidhil, of Aran, of Ceann-tire, of Manainn, and the borders of Alba in general, over which Mac Scelling was in command; and when they arrived near Inis-Eoghain, they fell in with the other fleet, and a naval battle was fiercely and spiritedly fought between them; and they continued the conflict from the beginning of the day till evening, and a great number of the Connaughtmen, together with Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda, were slain by the foreigners. The foreign host was however defeated and slaughtered; they left their ships behind, and the teeth of Mac Scelling were knocked out.


[23] Donald son of Malcolm, earl of Ross


1156: Dofnaldus filius Malcolm apud Witerne captus est, et cum patre suo incarcerates.


[Translation] Donald Malcolm’s son was captured at Whithorn, and imprisoned with his father.

[Anderson, Margorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938),  p. 128 & 188]


[24] Donald son of Malcolm, earl of Ross


1157: Malcolm Mabeth cum rege Scottorum pacificatus est.


[Translation] Malcolm Macheth was reconciled with the king of the Scots.

[Anderson, Margorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938),  p. 131 & 188]


[25] Uchtred son of Fergus


C.1159: [Extract] Malcolm IV, king of Scots, confirms to Kelso Abbey the liberties and possessions granted to it by his predecessors, himself and others including the ‘deciman animalium & porcorum & caseorum de chan de iiii kadrez de illa Galweia’ quam uiuente rege Alexander auus meus habuit’. Witnessed by Herbert, bishop of Glasgow; William, bishop of Moray; Gregor, bishop of Dunkeld; William and David his brothers; Ada his mother; Gaufrid, abbot of Dumfermline; Obsert, abbot of Jedburgh; Amfred, abbot of Newbattle; Alfred, abbot of Stirling; Walter, king’s chancellor; Robert, prior of St. Andrews; Mathew, archdeacon of St. Andrews; Tor’, archdeacon of Lothian; Herbert, chamberlain; Nicholas, clerk; Richard, chaplain; Master Andrew; Master Arthur; Walter, chancellor’s clerk; John, nephew of Bishop Robert; Serlo, clerk; Salomon Helia, chaplains to Bishop Herbert; Godred, king’s ’insularum’; Earl Gospatrick; Earl Ferteth; Earl Duncan; Earl Gilbert of Angus; Uchtred son of Fergus; Gilbert de Umfraville; William de Somerville; Richard de Moreville; Randolph de Soules; David Olifard; Richard Cumin; Robert Avenel; William de Moreville; William Finemund; Walter Corbert; Asketil de Ridala; Henry de Percy; Liolpho son of Maccus, Orm son of Hailaph. Apud Roxburgh.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, p. 192-95, no. 131]


[26] Fergus de Galloway


From the Chronicle of Holyrood

1160: Rex Malcolmus duxit exercitum in Galwaiam ter, et inde, dev[ict]is inimicis suis fed[er]atis, cum pace et sine dampo suo remeavit. Fergus princeps Galwaie habitum canonicum in ecclesia Sancte Crucis de Ednesburch su[s]cepti, et eis villan que dicitur Dunroden dedit.

[Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938), p. 136-137]


[1st Translation] King Malcolm led an army into Galloway three times. And he conquered his enemies there, and made a treaty with peace and he returned without loss. Fergus, the prince of Galloway, received the habit of a canon in the church of Holyrood at Edinburgh. And he gave to [that church] the village that is called Dunrod.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Early Sources of Scottish History AD 500 to 1286 (Edinburgh, 1922), Vol. II, p. 245]


[2nd Translation] King Malcolm [the fourth], three times, with a great army, marched into Galloway, and, at length, subjugated it to himself.  Fergus, prince of Galloway, took the canonical habit in the church of the Holy rood of Edinburgh; and gave to them the town which is called Dunroden.

[Ritson, Joseph: Annals of the Caledonians, Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1828), Vol. II, p. 276]


From the Chronicles of Melrose

1160: Malcolmus rex tribus vicibus cum exercitu magno perrexit in Galweia et tandem fubjugavit eos.

[Chronica de Mailros by the Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1835), p. 72]


[Translation] Upon three several occasions, King Malcolm went with a large army into Galloway, and at length he subdued them.

[Stevenson, Joseph: A Medieval Chronicles of Scotland (Felinfach, Lampster, reprint 1991), p. 12]


From the Chronicle of John Fordun

1160: Deinde ter eodem anno conflicto exercitu in Galwalliam (or Galwidiam) contra rebelles perrexit. Tandem [ipsis] devictis, foederatis ac subjectis, cum pace sine dampno suorum remeavit: quos postmodum ita subjectos compulit, ut eorum regulus, qui Fergusius dicebatur, armis declinans, Vithredum (or Vthredum) filium suum heredem obsidem regi dimiserit, et apud Sanctam Crucem de Edinburgh habitum canonicalem susceperit.

[Skene, William F.: Johannis de Fordun Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 256]


[Translation] He [Malcolm] then, thrice in the same year, mustered an army, and marched into Galloway against the rebels. At last, when he had vanquished these, made them his allies, and subdued them, he hied him back in peace, without loss to his men; and afterwards, when he had thus subdued them, he pressed them so sore, that their chieftain, who was called Fergus, gave up the calling of arms, and sending off his son and heir, Vithred, to the king, as a hostage, donned the canonical garb at the monastery of Holyrood, in Edinburgh.

[Skene, William F. (ed) & Felix J. H. (translator): John of Fordun’s Chronicle of The Scottish Nation (Edinburgh, 1872), p. 251]


[Comment] In the Scotichronicon, Walter Bower says Fergus sent his son and heir Uchtred to the king as a hostage, and took on the habit of a canon at Holyrood in Edinburgh. No record exists to show when he was released. The first element of Dunroden, Dun, Gaelic, a hill or mound, a fortified hill; and roden, is probably the personal name, Rodán, Gaelic Roideáin, derived from a diminutive of rod meaning strong, lively or spirited. It can be taken to mean, the fort of Roideáin.


[27] Fergus de Galloway


May 12, 1161: Obit Fergus princeps Galwaie quarto idus Maii.

[Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938), p. 139]


[1st Translation] Fergus, the prince of Galloway, died, on the fourth day before the Ides of May.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Early Sources of Scottish History AD 500 to 1286 (Edinburgh, 1922), Vol. II, p. 245]


[2nd Translation] Fergus, prince of Galloway, died on the fourth of the Ides of May (12th).

[Ritson, Joseph: Annals of the Caledonians, Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1828), Vol. II, p. 276]


[28] Uchtred son of Fergus and Gilbert his brother


May 1161-September 1164: Precept to lords of Galloway and Nithsdale

[Abstract] Malcolm, king to Scots, to Uchtred son of Fergus and Gilbert his brother and Radulf son of Dunegal and his brother Dovenald, and all his good men of “Galweie” and “Cludesdalie”.  He informs them that he has given his firm peace to the men going to “Galwciam” to lodge or dwell in the land of “Dunroden”, land that was granted in perpetual alms by Fergus [lord of Galloway] and his son Uchtred, to the Church of the Holy Cross of Edinburgh [Holyrood Abbey] by a charter confirmed by the king.  Nobody is to disturb anyone travelling towards or staying in this land for the purposes mentioned. Nobody is to remain in the land against the will of the canons of Holyrood, on pain of the king's forfeiture of 10 pounds. At Clackmannan. Witnessed by Alured, abbot of Stirling, Robert, prior of May, Ingram, chancellor, Walter son of Alan, steward; John de Vallibus.

[Source: Dalhousie Muniments, NAS GD45/13/235]


[Comment] Latin copy reproduced in Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (1840), no. 26. Also printed in 'The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots, 1153-1165', edited by G.W.S. Barrow, Vol. 1, no. 230. Ingram served as the king’s chancellor from about the end of 1161 or early 1162 and resigned his office in October 1164, when he became bishop of Glasgow. This charter appears to have been issued after Uchtred’s release.


[29] Charter by Uchtred son Fergus of the Church of Colmonell


1161-1164: [Translation] Uchtred son of Fergus to all the sons of Holy Mother Church, Greeting. Know all men, as well to come this present I have granted in perpetual alms for the salvation of my soul, my ancestors and successors and give to God and to the abbey convent church of Sancte Crucis [Holyrood] of Edinburgh, of ‘Colmanele’ with the chapel of St Constantine and one ploughgate of land, and with all its rights and pertinents, with common pasture, and a tenth of all his cain, pleas and game between the rivers Urr, Nith and Cluden. He wills that the canons shall hold this church and the adjacent land quit of all exaction, in perpetual alms. Witnessed by Mac mares, Judice, Gillecatfar Collactaneo Uchtred, Gillecrist mac Gillewinin, Mactheuel, Daniel filio Erlenuine.

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (Bannatyne Club, 1840), p. 19, no. 23]


[Comment] The church of Colmanele [Colmonell] was confirmed to the Church of the Holy Cross of Edinburgh by Pope Alexander III in July 1164. The land between the rivers Urr and Nith was known as Desne Ioan.  


[30] Uchtred son Fergus, Lochlan (Roland) son of Uchtred


1161-1164: [Abstract] Uchtred [son of Fergus] to his lord and father, Christian, bishop of Galloway, noting that he and his heir have granted and given in alms to God and St. Leonard and the brothers of the hospital of St. Peter of York, one ploughgate of land and a toft in Creuequer (Troqueer), in free alms, free and quit from all secular custom and service, for the souls of David, king of Scots, and his father Fergus, and his mother, and his ancestors, with all its liberties and customs. Witnessed by Christian, bishop of Galloway; Everard, abbot of Holm Cultram; Robert, prior of Holm Cultram; William, cellarer; Robert, archdeacon of Carlisle; Robert, archdeacon of Galloway; Hubert de Vaux; Robert son of Truite, sheriff and Richard, his brother; Lochlan son of Uchtred; Peter the Teillol; Richard de Chenai; Richard de Heriz; Robert clerk of York; Radulf son of Richard; William de Lacressuner; Udard de Hoddem; Gilla Chad; Gilla Mor; Radulf clerk of Carlisle; Richard de York; Simon brother of Radulf clerk; William de Briscou; Robert Dunbredan.

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307, Vol. II, p. 422]


[Comment] Hubert de Vaux, was granted the barony of Gilsland in 1157, and died in 1164. Latin transcript in An Introduction to the History of Dumfries by Robert Edgar and edited by R. C. Reid (Dumfries, 1915) p. 218-219. Also, abstract in Acts of Lordship: The Records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234 by Keith J. Stringer, in Freedom and Authority: Historical and Historiographical Essays presented to Grant G. Simpson, edited by Terry Brotherstone and David Ditchburn (2000) p. 213, no. 6.


[31] Charter by Uchtred son Fergus to Holm Cultram Abbey


1161-1165: [Abstract] Uchtred son of Fergus with consent of Roland his heir, grants to Holm Cultram Abbey [in Cumbria] the toun of Kirkgunzeon in feu-ferme by its right bounds, with all appurtenances. Also a saltwork outside the bounds in a convenient place, and pasture for pigs within all the woods of the demesne without paying pannage.  Rendering £6 yearly to him and his heirs as long as the monks like to hold the land, namely £3 at Easter and £3 at Martinmas. They pay him 10 marks as deposit, on the condition that if they find the place not to their liking in three years’ time, he will return the said marks a gift. Service to the king of Scotland will be paid by himself and his heirs. Witnessed by Christian, bishop of Galloway etc.

[Grainger & Collingwood: The Register and Records of Holm Cultram; Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, Vol. VII, p. 48, no. 120]


[Comment] See abstract in Acts of Lordship: The Records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234 by Keith J. Stringer, p. 214, no.7. Holm established a grange at Kirkgunzeon soon after this agreement; but Uchtred deprived the monks of part of the estate and granted it to Walter of Berkeley and at the uprising of 1174, they may have been ejected altogether.


[32] Uctred son of Fergus, Radulf son of Dunegal


1161-1165: Papal Bull by Pope Alexander III to the Abbey of Holm Cultram

[Transcription] Pope Alexander III to Everard, abbot, and the brothers of the monastery of Holm Cultram grants his sanction to their holding the island of Holm, granted by king Henry (II), and Kirkewinni, held in fee farm from Uctred son of Fergus, and the saltwork, pasture, etc there, and the lands of Colnehath and Karlaveroc granted by Radulph son of Donegal and confirmed by King Malcolm.

[Grainger & Collingwood: The Register and Records of Holm Cultram; Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, Vol. VII, p. 52, no. 133a]


[Comment] The original grant to Holm Cultram of the lands of Conheath and Carlaverock, confirmed by King Malcolm IV, must have been made between 1161 and 1174, when Uctred died. Alexander III was pope between 1159 and 1181.


[33] Uchred son of Fergus, Radulf son of Dunegal


1161-1174: Bond between the abbeys of Holm Cutlram and Dundrennan

[Transcription] Agreement between the abbeys of Holm and Dundraynan. The latter made claim on Kyrkewinni, held by the former from Huctred filio Fergus.  It is agreed that Holm shall not acquire more land or build more houses or sheepcotes on the western side of the Nid [river Nith].  But on the eastern side, on land that belonged to Radulph filio Duvenald, neither house shall acquire more without the consent of the other.  Dundraynan shall have power to increase on the west side of the river, outside the land of the grange of Holm.  The flocks of Holm are not to go into the adjacent pastures so far that they cannot return at night to their own grange, until Dundraynan has got land for a grange, to enclose these pastures and prevent intrusion by the flocks of Holm.  The pigs of Kirkewinni can go into the woods of Huctred between the grange and the Nid, but in time of pannage the pigs of both abbeys shall get pannage outside the aforesaid wood.

[Grainger & Collingwood: The Register and Records of Holm Cultram; Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, Vol. VII, p. 52, no. 133]


[Comment] The land of Radulf son of Dunegal, spelt Duvenald, is mentioned in the following Papal Bull granted by Pope Alexander III.  As Uctred son of Fergus appears to be still alive the date must be between 1161 and 1174.


[34] Gilbert son of Fergus, Radulf son of Dunegal


1163-1165: Charter by King Malcolm IV to the Priory of St. Mary & St. James

[Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, confirms to the Priory of St. Marie and St. James of the island beside Renfrew Castle (afterwards Paisley Abbey) the whole of the said island with the fishing between it and Partick, the church of Paisley with two carucates of land, the carcute held by Walter the chaplain in Hassendean (Roxburghshire), the church of Innerwick (E. Lothian), and five merks of silver from the mill of Innerwick, all as granted by Walter son of Alan (the king’s steward). Witnessed by ‘Gergorio episcopo de Dunkeld, Comite Duncano, Comite Feret de [Strathearn], Gillebrid comite de Angus, Malcolmo comite de Atheld, Ada comitissa, Willelmo de Veteri Ponte, Gileberto de Umfrauill, Roberto Auenell, Gilberto filio Fergusii, Radulfo filio Dunegal, apud Castellum Puellarum’.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, p. 270, no. 254]


[Comment] Original in the National Library, MS. Adv. 34.4.14, folio clii.  


[35] Churches of St. Cuthbert in Kirkcudbright, Tongland, etc.

 

July 29, 1164: Confirmation by Pope Alexander III to William, abbot of Sancte Crucis (Holyrood] in Edinburgh of the church of St. Cuthbert in Desnemore with all its pertinent, the church of Tungeland with all its pertinents, the St. Constantine of Galloway with the church of Colmonell and its ploughgate, the church of Dunroden and Galtwalt (sic. Galtweid).

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (1840), Appendix, p. 169-170]


[36] Churches of St. Cuthbert in Kirkcudbrig


1164-65: It happened that in the year 1164, Ailred, the Abbot of Rievaux, was on a journey in Galloway, and was at Kirkcudbright on the festival of the saint from whom the place is called. On this occasion a bull of a fierce temper was brought to the church as an oblation, and was baited in the churchyard by the young clerics, notwithstanding the remonstrances of their aged brethren, who warned the others of the danger of violating the 'peace' of the saint within the limits of his sanctuary. The younger men persisted in their frolic, and one of them ridiculed the idea of St. Cuthbert's presence, and the consequent sanctity of the place, even though his church was one of stone. The bull, after being baited for a time, broke loose from its tormentors, and, rushing through the crowd, he attacked the young cleric who had just spoken, and gored him, without attempting to hurt any other person.

[Harper, Malcolm M’Lachlan: Rambles in Galloway, Topographical, Historical, traditional and Biographical (Edinburgh, 1876), p. 57]


[37] Uchtred son Fergus, Lochlan (Roland) son of Uchtred


May 1164-1174: [Abstract] Donation of the church of Torpenhow

[Headed] Uchtred son of Fergus and Gunnild his wife to all the sons of Holy Mother Church, Greeting. Know all to come as present, with the consent of their heir Lochlan, confirm by this charter the church of Torpenhow [sic. Torpennoth] with its land and rights to the Church of the Holy Cross of Castello Puellarum (Edinburgh) and to the canons there serving in perpetual alms for the salvation of the souls of Waldef, Fergus and their ancestors, as freely as any church in the diocese of Carlisle.  Witnessed by Geoffrey, abbot of Dunfermline; Osbert, abbot of Jedburgh; Alured, abbot of Stirling; Gillemure mac Blancard; Gillemure Albanach; Gilbert mac GillefiN, Serlo, Bernard, Richard, burgesses of Bertha [Perth].

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (1840), p. 19, no. 24]


[Comment] See also Dalhousie Muniments, National Archives of Scotland, GD 45/13/233.  Uchtred inherited part of his father lordship in 1161 and died in 1774.  Gift not confirmed by Pope Alexander III in July 1164. Geoffrey II was abbot of Dunfermline between 1154 and 1178.  Osbert was abbot of Jedburgh from about 1153 until his death in 1174.  Torpenhow is located in Cumbria, England. Gunnild was the daughter of Waldef of Allerdale, Cumbria. Lochlan was later known as Roland. Gunnilda was the sister of Alan son of Waltheof, lord of Allerdale, Cumberland. Gillecatfar was Uchtred’s foster brother. Blanchart is Old French.


[38] Radulf son of Dunegal, Uchtred son of Fergus


1165: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, grants to the Cathedral Church of Glasgow and to Bishop Ingram and his successors the land of Kinclaith (sic Cunclud), so that the king and his father, Earl Henry, and his grandfather, King David I, may obtain remission and absolution from the church of Glasgow in respect of all the transgressions committed by them against the church and its bishops and servants, if they have transgressed against them in any particular; and specially on account of the lands which King Malcolm granted to his barons and knights until the day when he took the staff of a pilgrim to Saint James (of Compostella), from which lands the church of Glasgow had been accustomed to receive rents and cain. Witnessed by ‘Willelmo fratre Regis idem concedente, Ricardo episcopo Sancti Andree, Johanne abbate de Kelcho, Nicholao cancellario, Waltero filio Alani dapifero, Ricardo de Moruill constabulario, Hugone Ridel, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Uhtred filio Fergus, Henrico Luuel, Dauid Ouiet’. Apud Jedburgh.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, p. 276, no. 265]


[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 15. Granted at Jedburgh sometime between March and December 1165.


[39] Charter of the church of St. Bridget of Blaiket


1165-1174: [Translation] Uchtred son of Fergus to all the sons of Holy Mother Church, Greeting. Know all men, as well to come as present, that I have given and conceded for a perpetual alms, and for the safety of the soul of King David, and of his son Henry, and of King Malcolm, and my father Fergus, and of my ancestors, to the Church of the Holy Cross of Edinburgh, and to the canons there serving God, the church of St. Bridget of Blaiket, with one carucate of land, and all its rights and easements, namely, in fisheries, in wood and plain, in waters and meadows, and with common of pasture. I will therefore that the aforesaid canons may hold the aforesaid church, with all its adjuncts and appurtenances, free and quiet and clear of all exaction, as any other church in all Laudonia is freely and quietly held and possessed. Witnessed by Robert the archdeacon, Salomon the dean, Malbec the dean, Helia, clerk to the bishop, Ingeranno, chaplain to the bishop, Radulf priest of Lintoune, Gillechatfar, Gillecrist MacGillewinne, Daniele filio Herlewinin.

[The Archaeological and Historical Collections relating to the Counties of Ayr and Wigton (1884), Vol. IV, p. 55]


[40] Silvanus, abbot of Dundrennan


1167: Obiit pie memorie Aldredus, iij. abbas Rieuallis, cui fucceffit Siluanus abbas de Dundrainan.

[Chronica de Mailros by the Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1835), p. 81]


[Translation] Aldred of pious memory, the third abbot of Rievaulx, died; he was succeeded by Silvanus, abbot of Dundrainan.

[Stevenson, Joseph: A Medieval Chronicles of Scotland (Felinfach, Lampster, reprint 1991), p. 14]


[41] William, abbot of Dundrennan


1167-1186: Confirmation of the Churches of Dunrod and Twynholm

[Abstract] Christian, bishop of Candida Casa, confirms a grant to Holyrood Abbey of the church of St Mary and of St. Bruoc of Dunrod, in free and perpetual alms, with all their rights and appurtenances, save the bishop's rights, and the church of Tuignam [Twynholm] with all its rights and appurtenances.  He also confirms the donation of the whole toun of Dunrodden, within its boundaries and with its rights and appurtenances, made by Fergus and Huctred his son. Witnessed by William, abbot of Dundrainan; John, archdeacon; Gilbert, chaplain; Jacob, parson of Trequeer; Robert, priest, son of Dolfin; Macraith de Ospitali [Hospital]; Malbet, nephew of the bishop; Walter, his brother; Nicholas and Jacob, nephews of the bishop; William of Kertmel; Gilbert, steward of the bishop; Bran filio Macgillegunni; Arnold hostiarius [steward]; Adam de Ele; M. de Dunroden ad hospitandum.

Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (1840), p. 20, no. 25]


[Comment] Christian was consecrated bishop of Canadida Casa (Whithorn) in 1154 and he died in 1186.  Silvanus, abbot of Dundrennan, was elected abbot of Rievaulx in 1167, and William, held the abbacy of Dundrennan from about 1167 to the 1180s.  In this charter of confirmation, Christian confirmed two separate grants made by Fergus, lord of Galloway, who died on May 12, 1161.  According to the Chronicle of Holyrood, he gifted ‘the villam of Dunroden’ the day when he took the habit of a cannon of Holyrood in 1160, though, it has been suggested it is more likely to have occurred soon after January 6, 1161. This charter appears to have been written at the Hosptial in Galtway. Bran son of MacGillegunni was almost certainly the son of Gillecrist MacGillewinne or MacGillegunni.


[42] Malcolm MacEth, earl of Ross


1168: Obiit Malcolm Macheth comes de Ros.


[Translation] Malcolm Macheth, earl of Ros, died.

[Anderson, Margorie Ogilvie: The Chronicle of Holyrood (Edinburgh, 1938),  p. 151 & 191]


[43] Charter by Uchtred son of Fergus to Richard son of Troite


c.1170: Charter by Uchtred son of Fergus to Richard son of Troite

[Transcript] Charter by Uchred son of Fergus addressed to all his men and friends, French, English and Galwegian, granting with consent of Roland his son and heir to Richard son of Troite and his heirs the whole land of Lochenelo to be held in fee and heritage for the service of one knight, and as long as I [have to] render the payment of chaan de Cro and of Desense Joan he shall give me yearly for his free service and customary dues to the king of Scotland, to me and my heirs; and when I shall be free and quit from the payment of (de) chaan he shall hold freely the aforesaid lands by the service of one knight. Witnessedby Christian the bishop, Robert his archdeacon, Gilbert the chaplain, John his nephew, Thomas the clerk of Torpenhow, Robert the sheriff’s clerk, Robert son of Troite, Bernard le Fleming, William and Nicholis, his nephews, Adam nephew of Robert son of Troite, Robert son of Sungeva, Ralf clerk of Carlisle, David son of Terrus (lord of Anwoth), Norman the hostage, Nicholas son of David, Augustine his brother, Ivo de Stoches, William son of Reinbold, Herbert son of Hugh the Marshall, William de Cantelu, Andrew de Dumfries, Henry son of Hodard, William the clerk of Lochmaben, Simon brother of Richard the Marshall, Gillecatfar, Gilbert his son, Gilmor Albanach, Gilcohel, Macherne with many others.

[Reid, R. C.: Wigtownshire Charters, Scottish Historical Society (1960), p. xix-xx]


[Comments] Original in Cumbria Record Office, D/Lonsd./L5/1/S1. The above transcript is copied from the transcript given by R. C. Reid, who extracted his from the translation of the Latin text given by the Rev. Frederick Ragg in his article Five Strathclyde and Galloway Charters in the Transactions of Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society (3rd Series (1918), p. 249-50). In his footnote on this charter, R. C. Reid remarks that Mr. Ragg in his reproduction of the original made one misreading, which Prof. Barrow corrects by pointing out that this passage is not chaan del cro et de Defense joan (which does not make sense), but should be rendered as chaan de Cro and of Desense Joan.


Dr. D. C. McWhannell examined the original charter in the Cumbria Record Office and details the full list of witnesses in the ‘Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society’ (Vol. XLV, No. 1, p. 1-2), which includes three names missing from the copy given by R. C. Reid in 1960.  In his article, Dr. McWhannell comments that Reid’s ‘transcript also omitted some of the text of the original document’ and notes a ‘detailed examination of the text, lettering and contractions used and the penmanship of the scribe has revealed that the names previously given as “Gilchohel” and “Macherne” might more accurately be read as “Gilleconel” and “Oconactierne”.  In these forms, he suggests, respectively “Gill Chonaill” and “O Coneachthighearna” could mean the “devotee of Conall” and “the descendant of the hound of the horse lord”. The list below is a transcription of the Latin witness list in Ragg’s original article, which highlights the names missing in Reid’s.


‘His Testibus, Christiano episcopo, Roberto archidiacono suo, Gilleberto capellano, Johanne nepote suo, Thoma clerico de Torpenneu, Roberto clerico vicecomitis Roberto filio Tructe, Bernardo Flandrensi, Willo et Nicholao nepotibus suis, Ada nepote Roberti filii Tructe, Roberto filio Sungeve, Radulpho clerico de Carliol, David filio Teri, Normanno obside, Nicholao filio David, Agustino fratre suo, Hivone de Stoches, Willo filio Renboldi, Herberto filio Hugonis maraschaldi, Willo de Cantelu, Andrea de Dunfrees, Henrico filio Hodardi, Willo clerico de Louchamaban, Simone fratre Ricardi Marchaldi, Gille Catphara, Gilleberto filio suo, Gillmore Albanac, Gille Cohel, Macherne cum multis aliis’.

[Ragg, Rev. Frederick: Five Strathclyde and Galloway Charters, article in the Transactions of Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society, 3rd series, vol. V, p. 49]


[Comment] In his ‘Acts of Lordship: The Records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234’, Keith Stringer’s reproduction of the Latin text and his footnotes add further insight into Uchtred’s charter and in particular, the names Gille cohel and Macherne, which he corrects to ‘Mactierne’. He observed the text and comments, ‘the scribe wrote at speed, and had to correct several errors. The use of capitals and punctuation is eccentric’. Stringer interpreted the name Gille cohel and Mactierne as one and the same person, e.g. Gillecohel Mactierne, with no comma inserted between these two names.  Following Stringer and McWhannell’s interpretations, this old Gaelic name could be read as ‘Gilleconel Oconatierne’.  


[44] Fergus and his son Uchtred of Galloway


1171-1177: Charter of Confirmation by King William, under his Great Seal of Scotland, to the Abbey of Holyrood of all their possessons. It is addressed to the bishops, abbots, earls, justices, sheriffs, officers and all good men of his whole kingdom, ‘Frencis, Anglis, Scottis, Galuuensis’, as well present as to come. He grants and confirms to the Church of the Holy Rood and Canons of that place, all the possessions by his ancestors King David, his beloved brother King Malcolm and by others faithful in God. Amongst the gifts he confirmed are those by Fergus, Dunroden with the Church and all its appurtenances, and the isle of Trail with the land of Galtweid by the righ marches, and the gift of Uctred the Church of Saint Cuthbert of Desensemor, and the Church of Tungeland with teinds and finshings and all the rights justly belonging to the said church.

[Charters and Other Documents relating to the City of Edinburgh A.D. 1143-1540 (Edinburgh, 1871), no. II, pp. 9-13]


[45] Uchtred son of Fergus, Gilbert son of Fergus, Roland son of Uchtred


c.1172: King William restores and confirms to Robert de Bruce all the land that his father held in Annadale, by the same marches as those by which they held it, in feu and heritage, as freely as his father or he himself held of King David and King Malcolm, for the service of ten knights. Witnessed by Ingram, bishop of Glasgow (d. 1174); Christian, bishop of Whithorn (Galloway); Richard de Moreville, the constable; Walter son of Alan, the Stewart; Odenell de Umfraville; Henry Lovel; Uchtred son of Ferguer; Gilbert son of Fergus; Robert son of Troite; Walter de Windsor; Walter Corbert; Gilbert son of Richer; Roland son of Uchtred; William de Hay; William de Mortimer; Roger de Minto (Munethou); Simon Loccard; Hugh, king’s clerk; Robert de Charters; Richard, clerk. Apud Lochmaben.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214, p. 178, no. 80]


[46] Uchtred son Fergus


1172-1173 [Notation] William, king of Scots, commands Uchtred son of Fergus and Roger de Minto to convene the older men of the district to make a sworn perambulation of the marches of Kirkgunzeon, Kirkcudbright, on behalf of the abbey of Holm Cultram and Christian bishop of Galloway.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214, p. 474, no. 540]


[Comment] Roger Minto appears to have been sheriff of Dumfries.


[47] Churches of Iona Abbey


1172-1174 W[illiam] Rex Scott’. Episcopis Abbatibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, Justiciis, Uicecomitibus, Ministris, et Omnibus probis hominibus totius terre sue Clericis et Laicis salutem. Sciant presents et future me dedisse et concessisse et hac carta mea confirmasse Deo et ecclesie Sancte Crucis ed Edenesburch et canonicis in eadem ecclesias Deo seruientibus in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam ecclesias siue capellas in Galweia que ad ius abbatie de Hij Columchille pertinent cum omnibus decimis aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis Scilicet ecclesiam que dicitur Kirchecormach, ecclesiam Sancti Andree et illam de Balencros et illam de Cheletun. Uolo itaque ut predicti canonici predictas ecclesias siue capellas cum terries omnibus rectitudinibus et libertatibus suis in bosco et plano in pascuis Pratis in aquis et piscationibus et in omnibus predictarum ecclesiarum iustis pertinentiis teneant et possideant ita libere et quiete plenarie et honorifice sicut alias elemosinas suas liberius quietius plenius et honorifice tenent. His testibus, Matheo episcopo de Aberdon, Andrea episcopo de Caten’, Waltero Cancellario, Johnanne abbate de Chelcho, Herberto priore de Cold’, Comite Dunecano, Nesio filio Willelmi, Hug’ cleric regis, Hugo capellano, Hugo cleric cancellarii, Johnanne cleric cancellarii. Apud Forfar.  


[Comment] Headed ‘Ecclesiarum de Iikolumkil’. Grants to Holyrood Abbey the churches and chapels in Galloway belonging to Iona Abbey, viz, the church of Kirkcormack in the parish of Kelton, St. Andrew in the parish of Balmaghie and Barncrosh in the parish of Tongland.


[48] Description of the Galwegian host going in battle


1173: [Transcript] Rex Scottorum Willelmus quae in provincial Northanhimbrorum avo suo regi David fuerant donate, tradita, cartis confirmata, quae etiam fuerant ab ipso tempore longo possessa, repetens a rege patre sed repulsam inveniens, congregavit exercitum, habens multitudinem infinitam Galwalensium, agilem, nudam, calvitie multa notabilem, sinistrum latus munientem cutellis, armatis quibuslibet formidandis, jaculis jaciendis et dirigendis in longinquum manum habentem aptissiman, lanceam longam cum ad bellum progreditur erigentem pro signo.

[Ralph de Diceto, Decani Lundoniensis Opera Historica: The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto, Dean of London, edited by William Stubbs (London, Vol. I, p. 376]


[Translated] William, king of Scots, asked again from the king father [Henry] that which in the province of the Northumbrians had been granted, given over and confirmed by charters to his grandfather, king David, and which also had been long time possessed by him; but meeting with a refusal he collected an army, with an endless host of Galwegians, men agile, unclothed, remarkable for much baldness; arming their left side with knives formidable to any armed men, having a hand most skilful at throwing spears, and at directing them from a distance; raising their long lance as a standard when they advance to battle.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 247]


[49] Scottis and Galvalenses invade Northumberland


1174 [Transcript] Et statim post clausum Pascha, acceptis prius praedictis trecentist, marcis argenti de terries baronum de Northumberlands, rex Scotiae promovit exercitum suum in Northumberlandam, et ibi per Scottos et Galvalenses (Walenses, MS. B) suos execrabiliter egit [And immediately after the close of Easter, having first received the three hundred marks of silver from the lands of the barons of Northumbria, the king of Scotland moved forward his army into Northumbria, and there through his Scots and Galwegians acted execrably]. Mulieres enim praegnantes findebant, et feotus extractos super lancearum acumina jactabant. Infantes et pueros, et juvenes et sense utriusque sexus a maximo usque adminimum, sine ulla redemptione et misericordia interfecerunt. Sacerdotes vero et clericos in ipsis ecclesiis super altaria detruncabant. Quaecunque igitur Scottis et Galvalenses (Walenses, MS. B) attingebant, omina errant horroris plena et immanitatis.

[Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I, A.D. 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough, edited from the Cotton MSS, by William Stubbs (London, 1867), Vol. I, p. 64]


[Comment] Names in italics in brackets are taken form MS. B.


[50] Uchtred son Fergus, Gilbert his brother


1174: [Transcript] Huctredus vero filius Fergus, et Gillebertus frater ejus, cum audirent quod dominus suux rex Scotiae caperetur, statim redierunt cum Galvalenibus (duces Gaulensium, MS. B) suis in patrias suas, et statim expulerunt a Galveia omnes ballivos et custodes, quos rex Scotiae eis imposuerat, et omnes Anglicos and Francigenas quos apprehendere poterant, interfecerunt, et omnes munitiones et castella quae rex Scotiae in terra illorum firmavit, obsederunt, ceperunt et destruxerunt, et omnes quos intus ceperant, interfecerunt.

[Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I, A.D. 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough, edited from the Cotton MSS, by William Stubbs (London, 1867), Vol. I, p. 67]


[Translated] But Utred, Fergus' son, and Gilbert his brother, when they heard that their lord the king of Scotland [William] was taken, immediately returned with their Galwegians to their own lands, and at once expelled from Galloway all the bailiffs and guards whom the king of Scotland had set over them ; and all the English and French whom they could seize they slew ; and all the defences and castles which the king of Scotland had established in their land they besieged, captured and destroved, and slew all whom they took within them.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 256]


[51] Uchtred son Fergus, Gilbert his brother


1174: [Translation] And [Utred and Gilbert] very urgently besought the king father of England, and offered him very many gifts, that he would snatch them from the dominion of the king of Scotland, and reduce them to his empire.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500-1286 (London, 1908), p. 256]


[Comment] Translated by Alan O. Anderson from Roger Hovend, Chronica, Vol. II, p. 63.


[52] Uchtred son Fergus, Gilbert his brother


1174: [Transcript] Interim Hutredus et Gillebertus filii Ferregus, contendentes uter illorum dominus alterius esse deberet et habere dominum super Galwalenses; magnum odium inter se habuerunt; ita quod uterque illorum alteri insideabatur ad interficiendum. Et procedente tempore, Gillebertus, filius Ferregus, homines suos congregavit, et cum eis consilium iniit, ut Huctredus frater suus caperetur et occideretus; et statuto tempore convenerunt ut eum caperent et occiderent. Et venit Malculumb, filius Gilleberti filius filii Fergus (Ferregus), et obsedit insulam de [blank] in qua Hutredus frater patris sui et consanguineous Henrici regis Angliae, filii Mathildis imperatricis, morabatur, et eum cepit, et mittens carnifices suos, praecepit ut oculos ei eriperent, et testiculos et linguam absciderent; et ita factum est. Et relicto illo semimortuo, abierunt, et ipse Paulo post vitam finivit.


Dumque haec fierent, dominus rex misit in Angliam unum de clericis suis, Rogerum de Hovendun nominee, ad Robertum de Vallis, ut illi duo Huctredum et Gillebertum, filios Ferregus (Fergus), convenirent, et allicerent eos ad servitium ejus. Cumque venissent circa festum Sancti Clementis ad colloquium inter Ipsos et Gillebertum filium Fergus, ipse Gillebertus et caeteri Galvalensis (Welenses) obtulerunt eis, ad opus regis, duo millia marcarum argenti, et quingentas vaccas et quingentos porcos de redditu per annum, hac conditione, quod rex eos in manu sua reciperet, et a servitude regis Scotiae eriperet. Sed praedicti nuncii regis Angliae hunc fuissent cum Galalenisbus (Walensibus) facere noluerunt, donec locuti fuissent cum rege. Et cum indicatum esset regi qualiter Huctredus, filius Fergus, consanguineous suus interficeretur, noluit cum Galvalensibus illis pacem aliquam facere.

[Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I, A.D. 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough, edited from the Cotton MSS by William Stubbs (London, 1867), Vol. I, p. 79]


[Translation] Meanwhile Utred and Gilbert, Fergus' sons, were at strife as to which of them should be lord of the other and have dominion over the Galwegians ; and had great hatred between them, so that each of them lay in wait for the other to slay him. And in process of time Gilbert, Fergus' son, collected his men ; and made a plan with them that his brother Utred should be taken and slain. And at the appointed time they came together to take and slay him. And Malcolm, son of Gilbert Fergus' son, came and besieged the island of [blank] in which abode Utred, brother of his father, and cousin of Henry, king of England, son of Matilda the empress; and captured him, and sent his butchers, commanding them to put out his eyes, and to emasculate him and cut out his tongue; and so it was done. And they went away, leaving him half-dead ; and shortly after he ended his life.


And while these things took place the lord king sent to England one of his priests, Roger of Hoveden by name, to Robert de Vaux, that they two should meet Utred and Gilbert, Fergus' sons, and draw them to [Henry's] service. And when about the feast of St. Clement (23 November) they had come to a conference between themselves and Gilbert, Fergus' son, Gilbert himself and the rest of the Galwegians offered them for the king's benefit two thousand marks of silver, and five hundred cows and five hundred swine in revenue each year on this condition, that the king should receive them in his hand, and remove them from the servitude of the king of Scotland. But the aforesaid messengers of the king of England refused to make this compact with the Galwegians until they had spoken with the king. And when it had been shown to the king how Utred Fergus' son, his cousin, had been slain, he refused to make any terms with those Galwegians.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 257-8]


[53] Question as to the supremacy of York over the diocese of Candidae Casa


1177: [Transcript] In quo concilio suspendit ab officio episcopali Christianum episcopum Candidae Casa, quia ipse ad concilium illud venire noluit. Dicebat enim episcopatum suum pertinere ad legatiam Rogeri Eboracensis archiepiscopi, qui eum in episcopum consecraverat, secundum consuetudinem antiquam praedecessorum utriusque: et ipse Rogerus, Eboracensis archi-episcopus, constitutus erat legatus suae provinciae ab Alexandro summo pontifice; et juri suo vendicabat subjectionem episcopatus Candidse Casse, qui etiam nominatus est episcopatus Witernae de Galveia.

[Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I, A.D. 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough, edited from the Cotton MSS, by William Stubbs (London, 1867), Vol. I, pp. 166-167]


[Translation] And in this council he suspended from episcopal office Christian bishop of Whithorn, because he refused to come to that council. For he said that his episcopate pertained to the legation of Roger, archbishop of York, who had consecrated him as bishop, according to the ancient custom of the predecessors of each; and Roger himself, archbishop of York, had been constituted legate of his province by Alexander, the chief pontiff, and he claimed as belonging to his right the subjection of the bishopric of Candida Casa, which is also called the bishopric of Whithorn in Galloway.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 269]


[54] Gilbert son of Fergus


1174: Galwalenses proditorie, duce Gilberto, filio Fergusii, statim post sui captivitatem regis conjuratione facta, se a regno Scocise eodem anno dividentes, contiguas sibi terras inquietaverunt. Ochtredus itaque, filius Fergusii, quia verus extiterat Scotus, nee flecti potuit, x kalendas Octobris a fratre suo Gilberto captus est, et vinculis traditur, et tandem, lingua praecisa oculisque evulsis, crudeliter iuteremptus est. Quo rex solutus [coniperto adversus eos] exercitum duxit in Galwalliam, cui occurrentes, mediautibus episcopis et conitibus Scociae et intervenieutibus, pacta pecunia et datis obsidibus, consiliati sunt.

[Skene, William F.: Johannis de Fordun Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 266]


[Translation] The Galwegians, led by Gilbert, son of Fergus, treacherously made a conspiracy, just after their king's capture; and, separating themselves from the kingdom of Scotland, that same year, they disturbed the adjacent lands. Ochtred, moreover, son of Fergus, who was a true Scot, and could not be shaken, was taken prisoner by his brother Gilbert, on the 22nd of September, and given over unto bonds ; and, at length, his tongue was cut off and his eyes were torn out, and he was ruthlessly murdered. Upon learning this, the king, now released, led an army against them, into Galloway; but when these came to meet him, some Scottish bishops and earls stepped in between them, and, through their mediation, they were reconciled, by a money settlement, and by giving hostages.

[Skene, William F. (ed) & Felix J. H. (translator): John of Fordun’s Chronicle of The Scottish Nation (Edinburgh, 1872), p. 261]


[55] Church of Glasgow with rights in Galloway


April 19, 1179: Pope Alexander III to the venerable Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow

Pope Alexander III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in “Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stratnud, Desnes” and whatever rights in “Galweia” [Galloway]; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Lateran.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 42, no. 51]


[56] Church of Glasgow with rights in Galloway


March 17, 1182: Pope Lucis III to the venerable Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow

Pope Lucis III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in ‘Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stratnud, Desnes’ and whatever rights in ‘Galweia’ [Galloway]; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Velletri.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 49, no. 57]


[57] De Partition Angliae in Schiras et Episcopatus1


1185: Anglia habet in longitudine DCCC miliaria a loco Penwithstert vocato, qui situs est xv leugis ultra Michaelstoue in Cornewalas, usque ad Cathenes trans Scotiam. In latitudine habet ccc miliaria a Depiestowe usque Dofre. Habet sedes metropolitanas duas, Cantuariam, et Eboracam; sedes episcopales xv (Arundel MS., xx (note: including the Welsh sees and Whitherne), Rovecestriam; Lundoniam; Northwic; (qui de duobus unus factus est, nam una sedes erat apud Helmam vel Thetford secunda apud Domnach), Cicestriam; Wincestriam; Searibi, quara Heremannus episcopus, permittente rege Eadwardo de duobus episcopatubus, Ramesbiri et Scireburn, unam fecit; Execeastre, quam Leofricus episcopus, permittente rege Eadwardo, de duobus episcopatubus, in Cornewale, ad Sanctum Germanum, et Bridport, unam fecit; Bathun, cujus sedes fuit apud Welle usque ad dies Willelmi regis Secundi et episcopi Johannis; Wirecestre; Hereford; Ceastria, cujus sedes fuit apud Lichfield (vel Coventriam) usque ad dies Willelmi Primi, et Lanfranci archiepiscopi, et Petri episcopi; Lincolnia, cujus sedes fuit apud Dorkacestre (sed Remigius episcopus transtulit sedem Lincolnia), fuitque dudum divisa in tres, episcopatus; sunt enim in eo viij scirae et dimidium; Heli, quam Henricus rex Primus fecit, sumpta parte de episcopatu Lincolnise; Dunelmum, cujus sedes fuit apud Hagustaldensem ecclesiam, et alia sedes apud Halieland; Karliol, cui rex Henricus Primus et Turstinus archiepiscopus Aldulfum episcopum praefecerunt2.

[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 220-21]


[Comment] (1) There is no title prefixed to this little tract in the MS, but another copy exists in the Arundel MS, Norfolk, 222, which has been published in the ‘Historiae Brtiannicae, Saxonicae, Anglo-Danicae Scriptores XV’ by Thomas Gale (Oxford, 1691), pp. 560-3). It bears the title “De partitione provinciae in schiras et episcopatus, et regna” and was compiled by Ralph de Diceto, who became Dean of St. Paul’s in London about 1180. Besides what occurs in the MS., the Arundel text contains the list of kingdoms with the bishoprics in each, which are given by Malmesbury (Gesta Regum Anglorum, i., 6), which accounts for the addition of the last clause of the title, “et regna,” which does not apply to the tracts as now printed. The same extract from Malmesbury occurs also in another part of the Cambridge volume (folio 215), but not in connection with any work of Symeon. (2) For the sees of Durham and Carlisle, the Arundel MS has the following statement: - Archiepiscopatus Eboracensis olim in quinque episcopatus fuit divisus, scihcet in unum archiepiscopatum et quatuor episcopatus. Unus fuit ex parte fluminis Usge; alter apud Ripun; tertius apud Witeby; quartus apud Beverlacum; modo habet sub se tres episcopatus, scilicet Dunehnensem, videlicet Durem, cujus sedes erat apud Lindisfarnensam ecclesiam; alterum Cardolensum, scilicet Carduel vel Carlel, qui fuit subtractus ab Eboracensi, non tamen demptus ab episcopatu; Itertium Candidsecasse, qui vocatur Galaweya.


[58] Roland son of Uchtred, Gillepatrick and Gillecolm


Chronicle of Melrose

1185: Bellum fuit in Galwela inter Rolandum et Gillepatricium iiij°. non. Julii [Jul. 4] feria v. in quo plures occubuerunt ex parte Gillepatricii, ipfe vero interiit cum multis aliis.


Iterum Rolandus bellum habuit contra Gillecolmum, in quo frater Rolandi occubuit et Gillecolmus periit.

[Chronica de Mailros by the Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1835), p. 94]


[Translation] A battle was fought in Galloway, upon the fourth of the nones of July, being the fifth day of the week [Thursday, 4th July], between Roland and Gillepatrick, in which many were killed on the side of the latter, and he himself was slain with the rest.


Roland fought a second battle against Gillecolm, in which Roland’s brother fell, and Gillecolm was killed.

[Stevenson, Joseph: A Medieval Chronicles of Scotland (Felinfach, Lampster, reprint 1991), p. 23]


[59] Gilbert son of Fergus, Roland son of Uchtred, Gilpatrick, Henry Kennedy and Samuel


Chronicle of John Fordun

1185: Sed et eo tempore, bellorum civilium amator simul et executor, dominus Galwallise, Gilbertus filius Fergusii, qui fratrem suum Ochtredum, mutilatum lingua et exoculatum, nequiter occidit, anno Domini MCLXXXV mortuus est. Quod nutu divino constat fore factum, qui pauperum clamores et egenorum continuos clementer exaudit, et eos de manibus libenter eripit fortiorum. Quo defuncto, Rotholandus, filius Ochtredi, regio fultus auxilio, congregato exercitu suo, IIII nonas Julii, feria V, bellum commisit cum Gilpatricio, et Henrico Keuede, et Samuele, et aliis quamplurimis Galwalensibus, qui totius hostilitatis et guerre tempore Gilberti incentores et causa totalis extiterant. In quo conflictu praedicti nequitite fautores, cum suis complicibus, et aliis numero non paucis, Domino sibi digna pro meritis retribuente, gladio vindictae perierunt.


Idemque Rotholandus eodem anno quemdam Gillicolin, tyrannum et latrocinii principem, ex mandato regis insecutus, adversus aciem II kalendas Octobris eum instruxit; qui Gillicolin toti Laudoniae infestus, praedas crebras agendo, et latrocinia exercendo, nonnullos nobiles vita et facultatibus privaverat, ac tandem Galwalliam hostiliter ingressus, terras Gilberti, hoc tamen non immerito, et illarum partem Galwallise dominium sibi tyrannice usurpabat. Sed inito conflictu, ignominiosum simul et tyrannidis suae finem sortitus, cum pluribus suorum deperiit. In quo conflictu frater Rotholandi cum paucis parti suae faventibus cecidit interfectus.

[Skene, William F.: Johannis de Fordun Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 269]


[Translation] At that time, also, in the year 1185, died that lover and wager of civil war, Gilbert, son of Fergus, and lord of Galloway—he who had wickedly killed his brother Uchtred, after he had cut out his tongue and put out his eyes. Now this was sure to happen, by the will of God, who, in His loving-kindness, hearkeneth unto the constant crying of the poor and needy, and gladly snatcheth them from the hands of the stronger. Upon his death, Uchtred's son, Roland, upheld by the king's help, gathered his army together, and, on Thursday the 4th of July, fought a battle with Gilpatrick, and Henry Kennedy, and Samuel, and a great many other Galwegians, who, in Gilbert's time, had been the instigators and whole cause of all the hostile feeling and war. In this struggle, the aforesaid fosterers of wickedness, with their abettors, and others not a few, perished by the avenger's sword and the Lord requited them worthily after their deserts.


That same year, this Roland, at the king's command, hunted down a certain Gillacolum, a tyrant and robber chief, and drew up his army in battle array against him, on the 30th of September. This Gillecolm had been infesting all Lothian, by frequent spoiling and giving way to robbery, and many nobles had he bereft of life and property; and, at length, making a hostile attack upon Galloway, was tyrannously usurping to himself the lands of Gilbert—though there was no great injustice in this—and the sovereignty of those parts of Galloway. But, on their coming to blows, Gillecolm perished, with many of his men and thus his tyranny came to a shameful end. In this struggle, Roland's brother, and a few of those who sided with him, fell slain.

[Skene, William F. (ed) & Felix J. H. (translator): John of Fordun’s Chronicle of The Scottish Nation (Edinburgh, 1872), p. 264]


[Comment] It should be noted that Fordun’s chronicle was published about 1360. He seems to have had access to other information about the battles fought by Roland son of Uchtred, against Gillepatrick, Henry Kennedy and Samuel, a Latin name that is interchangeable with the Scottish Gaelic, Somhairle (‘Sorley’). It is possible the introduction of the family name Kennedy also inferred Samuel who followed Henry was also a Kennedy. Roland fought two battles, the first on 4 July, and 30 September, 1185. The second battle claimed the life of Roland’s younger unnamed brother. He had another brother called Fergus, who outlived him.


[60] Roland son of Uchtred


c.1185: Charter by King William to the Hospital of St. Peter in York

W[illiam] Dei Rex Scott’.  Omnibus probes hominibus tocius terre sue, clericis et laicis, salutem.  Sciant presentes et posteri me dedisse et concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse Deo et hospitali Sancit Petri in Ebor’ et fratribus ibidem Deo seruientibus duas carrucatas terre et dimidiam in territorio de Drumfres et de Kulenath, tenendam sibi in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam cum communi pastura et cum omnibus liberatatibus ad eandem terram iuste pertinentibus, ita libere et quiete, plenarie et honorifice sicut aliqua elemosina in regno meo liberius et quiecius, plenius et honorificencius tenetur et possidetur.  Concessi etiam eis et precipio ut omnes hominess sui super terram illam manentes quieti sint a theelon’ et omni consuetudine per totam terram meam, nisi fuerint aliqui eorum qui mercaturam exercurint sicut mercatores.  Testibus Jocelino Episcopo Glasguensi, Ricardo de Mrouill’ constabulario, Robert Capellano, Roberto de Quinci, Hugone de Sigillo et Ricardo de prebenda clericus meis, Roberto de Bruys, Alano filio Walteri, Rollando filio Utredi, Waltero de Berkel’ Camerario, Willelmo de Lyndesee’. Apud Gretna.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214, p. 290, no. 255]


[Abstract] W[illiam] K. of Scots, grants to the Hospital of St. Peter, York, two and a half carucates in the territory of Dumfries and Kulenach in frankalmoigne, and freedom from toll and custom for all their men dwelling there except traders.  Witnesses: Joceline bishop of Glasgow, Richard de Morville constable, Robert the chaplain, Robert de Quynci, Hugh de Sigillo, and Richard de Prebenda his clerks, Robert de Bruys, Alan fitz Walter, Rolland fitz Uctred, Walter de Berkeley, chamberlain, William de Lyndsee.  Gretenhou (Gretna).

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307, Vol. II, p. 421]


[Comment] Original in the Public Record Office, C.47/2/4, no. 8. The land of Conheath lies in the parish of Caerlaverock.  This charter was probably granted c.1185, when King William gained control of Dumfries.


[61] Gilbert son of Fergus, Roland son of Uchtred


1186: HENRICUS, rex Anglise, graviter exasperatus erga Rotholandum, pro morte proditorum Galwalensium, quos anno praecedenti se suaque jura tuendo belli lege prostraverat, atque, ad suggestionem malivolorum quorundam, eum habens exosum, coadunato contra eum undequaque per Angliam exercitu, Karlele usque progressus est, ubi Rotholandus, jussu et consilio, doniini sui regis Scociae, ad eum veniens, honorifice cum ipso concordatus est. Deinde rex Willelmus eidem, propter suam fidelitatem, et maxima beneficia sibi regnoque sapeius illata, totam terram Galwalliae dedit, terram scilicet Gilberti, cum terra, quam pridem hereditario jure possidebat. Pacem etiam et concordiam inter Rotholandum filiumque Gilberti composuit. Eidem itaque filio Gilberti, terris sui patris renuiicianti, quieteque Rotholando pro perpetuo gaudendam annuenti, rex totain Karryk concessit, cunctis temporibus possessuram.

[Skene, William F.: Johannis de Fordun Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 269]


[Translation] Henry, king of England, was very bitter against Roland, for the death of the Galloway traitors, whom, in defending himself and his rights, the latter had, the year before, overthrown in battle; and, through the promptings of certain evil-minded persons, feeling a deep hatred towards him, he levied an army against him, from all parts of England, and advanced as far as Carlisle. Roland, however, at the bidding and advice of his lord the king of Scotland, came thither to him, and they arrived at an honourable understanding. King William afterwards, on account of this Roland's faithfulness, and the many times he had so well bestead both him and the kingdom, gave him the whole land of Galloway—that is to say, Gilbert's lands, besides the lands he had himself formerly held by right of inheritance. He also restored peace and harmony between Roland and Gilbert's son. To this son of Gilbert's, likewise, who did forego his father's lands, and quietly agreed that Roland should enjoy them for ever, the king granted the whole of Carrick in possession for all time.

[Skene, William F.: John of Fordoun’s Chronicle of the Scottish Nation (Edinburgh, 1872) p. 265]


[62] Church of Glasgow with rights in Galloway


June 12, 1186: Pope Urban III to the venerable Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow

Pope Urban III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in ‘Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stratnud, Desnes’ and whatever rights in ‘Galweia’; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Verona.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 54, no. 62]


[63] Roland son of Uchtred


1186-1193: [Abstract] William, king of Scots, whereby he confirms to [St. Mary’s Isle] of Trellesholm and the canons thereof the church of [blank] with the lands teinds offerings and other privileges pertaining thereto, which Roland son of Uchtred gave to them and further two carucates (ploughgates) of land in the said toun of Eggerness with common pasturage and other easements as contained in the charter of the Roland, saving the king’s service there from. Also, the tenth of the provisions of the said Roland’s house in food and drink, in wax and tallow and everything else pertaining to his table at Kirkcudbright. At Castellum Puellarum (Edinburgh). Witnessed by Hugh the chancellor, Archibald abbot of Dunfermline, Simon archdeacon of Glasgow, Richard de Prebenda clerk, Earl Duncan, William de Lindsay, William de Moreville, Philip de Valonis, Randolph de Solis, Walter Corbet, Walter de Berkeley chamberlain, William de Vallibus and William de Cunningburgh.

[Source: The Priory of St. Mary’s Isle by Dr. R. C. Reid in Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 3rd Series, Vol. 36, p. 21]


[Comment] Original in National Archives of Scotland, RHC no. 14. Printed in ‘The Acts of William I, King of Scots, 1165-1214' (Edinburgh, 1971), edited by G W S Barrow, Vol. 2, no. 293. Paraphrased translation in R.C.Reid’s ‘Charters Selected mainly from Register House Collection 1150-1607’, Ewart Library, Vol. 146, p. 4.  Eggerness lies at Kirkmadrine in the parish of Sorbie, Wigtownshire. Walter de Berkeley served as the king’s chamberlain c.1171 – c. 1193.  In his article ‘The Priory of St. Mary’s Isle’ (DGNHAS, 3rd Series, Vo. 36), R. C. Reid suggests the foundation of St. Mary’s Isle commenced when Fergus lord of Galloway granted to Holyrood Abbey his island of Trail with the lands of Galtway and the canons established there a cell which in later times became Priory.


[64] Sir Roland son of Uchtred


1189-1196: Roger Maule has given and granted and established by this his charter to St Bees Priory one saltwork in his half of Colvend, with easements of the wood, in free and perpetual alms, and one full toft in his half of Colvend, to build a house on, with pasture for four oxen and four cows and one horse. He has also granted the monks licence to cut material from his own wood for their own uses and for building their church.  Witnessed by Sir Rolland son of Uchtred, Thomas de Coleville, constable of Dumfries, William de Coningsburgh, Gilbert son of Gospatric, Robert de Port, Radulf de Luvecot, Laurence son of Orm, John the priest, Walter the clerk, Robert the clerk, William son of Peter, Robert son of Simon and many others.

[Wilson, Rev. James: The Register of the Prior of St. Bees, Surtees Society, no. 60]


[Comment] Dated between the appointment of Thomas de Colville constable of Dumfries and death of Roland of Galloway, probably before he acquired the constableship. Granted the same day as no. 62 (no. 33).


[65] Charter of Hospitallers of Jerusalem


September 29, 1192: Grant by Alan, prior of Hospitallers

[Abstract] Knight Alan, prior of the Hospitallers of Jerusalem in England, who grants to Holyrood Abbey, with the assent of the chapter, the lands in Galeweia, that is to say Artun and Hirtun, within their boundaries, with their appurtenances. They will hold them with the same freedom given to the Hospitallers by Roland.  Every year, they will pay to the Hospital 40 s., 20s. are to be paid on the day of Letare Jerusalem [4th Sunday in Lent], and 20s. on the day of the Virgin's Assumption [15 August]. Witnessed by Knight Matthew, Knight William, Knight Robert of Lindsay; Knight Robert, "parcius" of the chaplain; Knight Gilbert de Ver, Knight Robert, son of Richard; Knight Robert [...]; Knight Simon Scot who wrote this charter; Knight Samson; Simon, clerk.  At the chapter, on St Michael's day [29 September], 1192.

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis’ (Holyrood Abbey) by the Bannatyne Club, 1840, no. 54]


[Comment] Also, copy in the Yule Collection Charters c.1144-1790, NAS GD90/1/11. This charter narrates that Alan, prior of the Hospitallers in England, with consent of the chapter, granted in favour of the canons of the Holy Cross of Edinburgh of the Hospitaller's lands in Galloway, viz: 'Artun and Hirtun' in the parish of Girthon.