Earliest References to the Surname
The earliest authenticated reference to the surname in Ireland is found in the Annals of Ulster, which records the names of Muirchertach and his son Eoin (John). In 1207, ‘Muircertach O Milluga[i]n (or O Maelaga[i]n)’ was elected chief lector of the abbey of Derry of St. Columcille, after the death of the late lector, Domnall Ua Muiredaigh. A lector was a monk entrusted with the reading of the sacred scriptures in the church or abbey refectory. In 1220, following a dispute over the election of Flann Ua Brolcháin, abbot and successor of St. Columcille, ‘Muirchertach Ua Millugain’ was elected to replace him. It is unclear from the annals why the clergy of Derry were in dispute over the succession of Flann Ua Brolcháin, but it seems the choice of Muirchertach was acceptable to both the clergy of Derry and the chief council of the Cenél Eogain. For the next year or so, Muirchertach held the office of abbot and chief lector, before his right to hold them were challenged by Geoffrey Ua Daighri, herenagh of Derry. The matter was only settled after they appealed to the archbishop of Armagh, who chose Eoin, Muirchertach’s son, to the lectorship, a judgement that settled their difference.
In the Annals of Ulster, Muirchertach’s surname is spelt differently in two manuscripts; MS 1282 in Trinity College Library in Dublin and Rawlinson B 489 in Bodleian Library in Oxford. In the first reference dated 1207, the editor of the second volume of the Annals, B. Mac Carthy has written O Milluga[i]n and in brackets, supplied O Maelaga[i]n from MS 1282. This manuscript was compiled in Co. Fermanagh and was known as the Annals of Senat, having taken its name from the residence of Cathal Mac Manus, who lived at Shanad, now called Belle Isle, an island in Upper Lough Erne. In the Gaelic text dated to 1220, the style ‘hUa Milluga[i]n’ and ‘O Milluga[i]n’ are translated as Ua Millugain and O’Millugain from Rawlinson B 489. This manuscript is believed to be the original compiled in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The copy made by Cathal Mac Manus has been dated prior to 1498, when he died at Lough Erne.
Further south in the Wicklow Mountains at Castle Kevin, sometime between 1257 and 1263, an inquisition was held to inquire into the temporal jurisdiction exercised in the manorial courts of the archbishop of Dublin under the first three English prelates promoted to the see through the influence of the kings of England. John Cumin, the first of them, was ordained in 1181, and succeeded by Henry de London in 1213 and Luke in 1229. The inquisition was held during the time of Fulk de Stanford, bishop of Dublin 1257 to 1271. Castle Kevin was located in the old medieval diocese of Glendalough, which was united with the diocese of Dublin in 1214. It was originally built by the O’Tooles probably in the twelfth century. Amongst the list of jurors who gave evidence to the inquisition was ‘Molior Omolegane’, whose appearance at the court suggests he had local knowledge of the matters being heard and lived in the bishop’s manor.
The personal name of Molior Omolegane is shared with ‘Maoilire O’Maolagain’, chief poet and bard to the O’Reillys of East Breifne, which today covers most of Co. Cavan. In 1293, the celebrated Giolla Iosa Roe O’Reilly succeeded his brother Matthew O’Reilly, as prince of East Breifne. During his reign Maoilire O’Maolagain flourished as Giolla Iosa’s chief poet. One of Maoilire’s poems has survived and celebrates the deeds of this chief in the poem entitled “We went on a hosting with Giolla Iosa the valiant”. This poem with others, appears to be the source of O’Hart’s claim that the O’Mulligan/Mulligan family of Breifne were hereditary bards to the O’Reillys. The chief poet might well have been early associated with a branch of the Conmaicne Rein in Co. Leitrim or Co. Cavan, which is discussed below. The personal name ‘Maelagan’ appears in the Book of Fenagh, which takes its name from the old Abbey of Fenagh in West Breifne, generally associated with County Leitrim.
Medieval Genealogies of Ireland
In Irish Genealogical tradition, several O’Mulligan families have pedigrees attached to them. The oldest are the O’Mulligans in Co. Donegal, who are associated with the Cenél Moain, a branch of the Cenél Eogain. The ancestor of this cenél, Eogain, is reputed to be one of the sons of the legendry Niall of the Nine Hostages. The pedigree of the sept of the Ua Maelagain is given in the Book of Ballymote compiled either in 1390 or 1391, and the Book of Lecan compiled between 1397 and 1418.
Book of Ballymote (Unpublished Genealogies, folio. 44 v a 15)
Niall .ix. ghiallaig > Eogain > Muiredhaigh > Muain > Colmain > Faelain > Edalaigh > Tendalaig > Ferrdalach > Cathanigh > Uí Maelagan.
Book of Lecan (Unpublished Genealogies, folio. 54 v a 38)
The Ua Maelagain are given as a branch of the Clann Cathánigh (Keany or Keane) of the Cenél Moain and are akin to the Ua Gormghaile (O’Gormleys) and the Ua Luinigh (O’Lonney). In the following pedigrees, they are compared alongside the pedigree of the Ua Maelagain and the Ua Lochlainn (McLaughlin) kings of the Cenél Eogain. The Ua Gormghaile pedigree is taken form Cú Choigríche O Cléirigh’s (O’Clery) genealogies.
The genealogy of the Cenél Moain appears in three sections: ‘Minegud sencais Ceniel Moain’ (Explanation of the history of the Cenel Moain), Genelach Cenél Moain Ichturach (Lower) and ‘Genelach Cenél Moain Uachtarach’ (Upper), from whom came a number of other family surnames, some now obsolete. According to the Books of Ballymote and Lecan, from Cathanigh came three other family surnames, including Ua Faelain and Ua Oirc, possibly Coric, the personal name “Corc”. It forms part of the patronymic name McGurk, found in both Ireland Scotland.
In Search of the Sept of O’Mulligan in Co. Donegal
Two important references to the sept O’Mulligan appear in a late fourteenth century topographical poem of Ireland by John O'Dubhagain, an Irish poet, and the Ceart Uí Néill (the Rights of O’Neill) compiled in the sixteenth century. In the former, they are called the ‘Siol Maolagain’ and were chiefs of the people of ‘Tir Mac Carthainn’, that is, the ‘territory of the son of Carthainn’. In the poem, they are listed under that section headed “Tir Chonaill”, which was later renamed ‘County Donegal’. O'Dubhagain’s poem what written sometime before his death in 1372, and covers the names of the principal chiefs and families in the province of Meath, Ulster and Connaught at the time of the Anglo-
Tir MacCarthainn of plundering slaughters
Belongs to the high-
To put them in our poem it is our judgement
There was a time when we would not repent of it.
Siol meaning ‘seed’ of Maolagain appear to have been at the height of their power in the thirteenth and fourteenth century and had a fearless reputation for plundering in Donegal and beyond. The editor of O'Dubhagain’s poem, John O’Donovan, suggested Tir MacCarthainn takes its name from Caerthann, son of Fergus, son of Conaill (who gave his name to Tír Conaill and the Cenél Conaill). He then notes, ‘the Abbe MacGeoghegan places this district to the east of Boylagh, but on what authority O’Donovan did not know, as the pedigree of this race is lost. He goes on to say ‘neither MacFirbis nor O'Clery was able to supply the chasm in the Books of Lecan and Ballymote’. I take this to refer to the MacCarthainn genealogies rather than the Ua Maelagan, which is mentioned by MacFirbis, but omitted by O’Clery.
In the Ceart Uí Néill, which recites the obligations, tributes and provisions due to the Ó Néill kings from the other kings of Ulster, the O’Mulligans are called ‘Ó Maoilegáin of Magh gCaoroind’. Their chief was one of at least 13 minor lords who were obliged to provide military service under the O’Donnells, when called to muster the men of Tir Conaill. Although the present copy of the Ceart Uí Néill is only dated from the sixteenth century, it is believed to have been based on earlier copies compiled after the defeat of the Mac Lochlainn kings at the battle of Cameirghe in 1241, when the O’Neills emerged as the victors and for the next three hundred years, successively ruled the northern Uí Néill. Coupled with O'Dubhagain’s poem, the Ceart Uí Néill sheds more light on the Siol Maolagain’, who were evidently still regarded in the sixteenth century, as one of the leading septs in Tir Conaill able to provide fighting men for the O’Donnells and O’Neills.
In 1593, they were followers of the O’Donnells, when Hugh Roe O’Donnell, lord of Tir Conaill, led a rebellion against Turlough Luineach O’Néill and in the following year, the English Government in what became known as the Nine-
In 1608, another rebellion erupted and its leader Sir Cahir O’Doherty, lord of Inishowen, was killed in a skirmish against government forces near Letterkenny in Co. Donegal. Amongst those pardoned the following year for their part in the rebellion were Shane O'Molligan, Donnogh Ballagh O'Molligan and Swine O’Moligan, whose names are listed in the company of Owen O’Gallagher of CoolemscItrian, pardoned on 10 March, 1609. In September, 1610, King James I granted to Cuthbert Cunningham, a native of Scotland, a patent of naturalisation, and the land and manor of CoolemscItrien in All Saints Parish, which had belonged to Owen O’Gallagher in the barony of Raphoe. It seems very likely then that Shane O'Molligan, Donnogh Ballagh O'Molligan and Swine O’Molligan were members of the Siol Maolagain and after the rebellion some may have been dispossessed of their lands in Co. Donegal.
Where then was the territory of Tir MacCarthainn? In their books on Irish Surnames, Edward MacLysaght and John Grenham place the ‘Ua Maolagain’ chiefs as lords of Tir MacCaerthain in the baronies of Boylagh and Raphoe. Patrick Woulfe makes the ‘O Maolagain’ a ‘Tirconnell family who were chiefs of Tir MacCarthain in the east of the barony of Boylagh, but seem to have been disposed and dispersed at an early period’. Michael O’Laughlin in his Families of County Donegal hopelessly confuses his sources for the ‘O’Maelagain’ by asserting Geoffrey Keating’s History of Ireland makes them ‘chief of Tir Mac Caerthain, a territory included in the baronies of Raphoe and Boylagh’, and then notes O’Dubhagain (O’Dugan) also gives them as a ‘clan of Moy Ith in the 12th century and well settled in Tyrone at the time’.
In his article on the Coarbs and Erenaghs of County Donegal, Patrick Gallachair suggested the ‘Siol Maelagain were evidently the ‘Mointermolligan’ (Muinter-
The term herenagh or erenagh is the anglicised form of airchinnech, which originally signified the head or superior of an early Irish ecclesiastical community called a monasterium, translated as monastery. The smaller monasteria were more familial and in early medieval times, the herenagh was usually a cleric, who might or might not proceed to priestly or episcopal orders. After the twelfth century Reform, their estates and lands were transferred to the bishops, and they became primarily the chief tenants of episcopal land. The hereagh still continued to retain their sense of being ‘ecclesiastics’ and were bound by the ancient monastic obligation of providing hospitality to pilgrims, strangers and travellers. The herenagh became a sort of manager or chief of the church land. He was elected by the local coarb or herenagh sept, and if suitable, was then approved in office by the bishop. The herenagh’s duties were to provide from his revenue for the support of the clergy and the maintenance of religious service, churches and chapels.
Map 1 Baronies of Co. Donegal
Very little is known about the ancient monastery of Tullyfern, Gaelic Tulach-
As already noted, the lands occupied by the Muinter-
With two references placing the Siol Maolagain amongst the people who lived in the old barony of Kilmacrenan, it raises new questions about the origins of the O’Mulligan in Co. Donegal. For example, could there have been two distinct families bearing this surname, one associated with Tir Conaill and the other with the Cenél Eogain? Or had the Muinter-
Map. 2 Tirkeeran in County Donegal
The civil parish of Clonleigh was one of three parishes embracing that part of the territory of Magh Itha located in Co. Donegal, the rest of Magh Itha extended into Co. Tyrone. The other two parishes are Donaghmore and Urney, and all three parishes lay in the diocese of Derry. The old abbey of Derry of St. Columcille also came within the diocese of Derry and the influence of the Cenél Eogain; as already noted above Muirchertach Ua Maelagain was elected with the consent of the Cenél Eogain. It seems therefore he might well have belonged to the Cenél Moain, who considered themselves to be part of the Cenél Eogain. Two further pieces of evidence point to a family descending from the Cenél Moain. In the parish of Donaghmore, we find the townland name of Lisnamulligan, which means ‘Maelagain’s fort’. This townland may well have taken its name the Ua Maelagain, for as late as 1665, the name of John O’Mulligan is listed in the Hearth Tax rolls covering the Castlefin estate in Donaghmore. With the place-
Book of Ballymote, folio. 44 v a 15
Book of Lecan, folio. 54 v a 38
Niall .ix. ghiallaig
m. Gairmleadaigh a quo
m. Néll (Niall)
Book of Ballymote
m. Niall .ix. ghiallaig
a quo Ua Luineigh
Gilla Críst ua Luinig (1090)
Book of Ballymote
m. Niall .ix. ghiallaig
a quo Ua Maelagan
The Ua Gormaghaile and Ua Luinigh are first mentioned in the Annals on the following dates:
1084: Domnall ua Gailmredaigh was killed by Domnall ua Lochlainn, king of the Cenél Eogain.
1090: Gilla Críst ua Luinig, chief of Cenél Moain was treacherously killed by Domnall ua Lochlainn.
Book of Leinster
Neill .ix. giallaig
m. Domnaill, d. 566
m. Aed Allan, d. 612
m. Fergaile, d. 722
m. Neill Frossach, d. 788
m. Aeda Oirdnide, d. 819
m. Neill Kaillie, d. 846
m. Aeda Findleith, d. 879
m. Domnaill, d. 915
m. Flaind, d. 906
m. Mael ruanaidh, d. 940
m. Mael Sechnaill, d. 997
m. Niall, d. 1061
m. Aed, d. 1083
In the Milligan/Milliken DNA Project, there are about five different STR haplotypes within four SNP haplogroups that appear to be Irish’s clades, rather than Scottish. The four SNP clades are: R-
Genetic Research and the O’Mulligan Y-
Only one ‘O’Mulligan’ in the Milligan/Milliken DNA Project, who gives his ancestry as Co. Donegal, has been tested with 37 Y-
In Irish genetic-
There is another member confirmed I-
The plantation of Ulster introduced to Co. Donegal, Milligans and Millikens of Scottish ancestry, who appear in seventeenth century records as Mulligan and probably belong to the Scottish M222>DF106> DF104>DF105>FGC4133 subclade. One family are known to have settled in barony of Banagh, and their names appear in the c.1630 muster roll of John Murray, earl of Annandale in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. Along with Andrew Murray, Neile O’Cassan, John Horestanes, John Stuart, Thos Carnes, John MacLaghty, Thos Frisall, Robert Modiey, John Makonell, Archd Horner, Alex Shilane, John Creighton, Patr Makey, Wm Huett, David Firley, John Reynolds, David Tapen and Thos Creighton, George Mulligan was the subject of a claim against him by John Murray at the Irish Chancery in Dublin on 10 February, 1618.
His arms and men -
Molligan, George, no arms, f. 195a.
Jackson, David, younger, no arms, f. 196a.
Shankeland, Gilbert, no armsn f. 196a.
Milligan, John, younger, no arms, f. 196a.
John Murray, earl of Annandale, acquired a number of proprieties in the baronies of Boylagh and Banagh belonging to other Scottish planters, such as, William Stewart of Garlies, Sir Patrick Vaus of Barnbarroch, Sir Patrick McKee of Larg and George Murray of Broughton. In the barony of Banagh, the Earl owned the whole of the parish of Killybegs and the townlands of Aighan, Ballybedonnell, Ballyloughan, Croagh, Darney, Druminiscal and Rahan in the parish of Killaghtee. The 1665 Hearth Money Rolls of County Donegal lists the names of Robert Shanklan and Widow Milikin, who immediately follows Shanklan, in the parish Killaghtee. The widow might well have been the spouse of George Mulligan, and mother of “John Mulligan” of Ballyloughan in the same parish, who was one of 14 jurors sitting at the Coroner's Inquest held at Dunkineely on 15 September, 1660, into the death of Alexander and John Murray were found dead.
The Muinter Maelagain in Counties Fermanagh
In his book ‘The Fermanagh Story’, Peadar Livingstone claimed the O’Maolagains were an Aileach family and chiefs of Boylagh and Raphoe in Co. Donegal, before coming to Fermanagh. Here they settled in the baronies of Magherastephana and Clankelly, and probably gave their names to Mullowulligan, otherwise Milligans, and Eshywulligan townlands in the parish of Clones. Robert Bell in his ‘The Book of Ulster Surnames’, goes one step further and notes that they lost their lands during the plantation of Ulster and migrated to Counties Fermanagh, Monaghan and Mayo. According to the same author, in Fermanagh the O’Mulligans settled in Magherasteffany and Clankelly, and in Monaghan, in the northwest and centre of the county. This cannot be entirely correct, as the O’Mulligans in Magherasteffany and Clankelly were already there in the 1400s. This cannot be correct, as the O’Mulligans where already in Fermanagh as late as 1485. If in fact they came from Co. Donegal, it is much more likely they descended from a family already living in Fermanagh, before the plantation of Ulster, who settled near Clones, perhaps about the time the Ua Luinig of the Cenél Moain settled in Fermanagh. On the other hand, they might well descend from an alternative lineage separate from the Northern Uí Néill.
In 1485, the Annals of Ulster record the slaying of ‘Gilla-
Map 3 County Fermanagh
The association of the Muinter Maelagain with the O’Daimin seems to indicate the period during which they flourished and in the Annals of Ulster, we find three obits that support this observation: the death of Brian Ua Maelagain in 1439, Cathal Ua Maelagain in 1441 and Domnall Ua Maelagain, a poor person devoted to God in 1446. Although, these obits lack any specific detail about where each individual lived, it can be inferred they died during the period when the Muinter Maelagain flourished in Co. Fermanagh in the 1400s. As late as 1447, the O’Daimhin still held some power and influence in the district, as we find them engaged in a rival dispute with the Maguires, when ‘Domnall Mag Uidhir’ was slain by another branch of the Maguires, supported by the sons of Mac Orighialliagh and two of the sons of Ua Daimin of Tirkennedy, formerly known as Tir Cennfota. The Muinter Maelagain seem to have left their name in two townlands in the parish of Clones and barony of Clankelly, namely, Eshywulligan and Mullowulligan now Milligans, where their descendants were still living during the first half of the seventeenth century.
On 8 March, 1615, we find Neile O'Mullegan and Cnogher mcCafforrie of ‘Mullaghglasse’ on trial at Enniskillen in Co. Fermanagh before Sir John Blenerhasset, Knight, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and Sir Robert Oglethorpe, Knight, the second Baron of the same Court. It was found that Con Roe O'Connelly of Mullagheglasse, yeoman, on the 20 November, 1614, at ‘Dromeforde’, stole a brown cow worth £3, the property of Edward Sibthorpe, gentleman, and was aided on the last day of the same month by Cnogher mcCafforrie and Neile O'Mullegan of Mullaghglasse. The court found in their favour and they were acquitted. The townland of Mullaghglasse is Mullaghglass, which is located in the parish of Clones near to Eshywulligan and Milligans.
At the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion in 1641, Donnogh Grane O’Mullegan, Phillip O’Mullegan and Brian O’Mullegan were amongst a company of 60 or so tenants led by Donn Carrough Maguire and Edmund Carrough Maguire, probably Donn’s brother, who attacked Shannock Castle near Clones early in the morning of 23 October of that year. At the time, Arthur Champion, landlord and justice of the peace was holding a Court Leet of the barony of Clankelly, and present with him were Maximillian Tibbs, High Constable of the said barony, Miles Acres, Hugh Stookes and Thomas Sergeant, who were all killed with him that day after the party had entered the castle. They had gained entry by pretending that they had caught a man stealing sheep and were bringing him to the court to be tried. Donnogh Grane O’Mullegan may well have been one of the heads of the Muinter Maelagain in Clankelly, which by the time of the 'Statistical Census of Ireland' c.1659, compiled by Sir William Petty, numbered some 23 households extended over seven Parishes:
Parishes of Clones, Aghavea and Devenish -
Parishes of Boho, Rossorry, Cleenish and Killesher -
The statistical account seems to have only recorded the number of Irish households and their surnames, if they were considered to be more than a few in a given area and in the case of Co. Fermanagh, it accounted for the highest group of O’Mulligans, also spelt as O’Mullican, in Ireland. Since the statistical account made a difference between the surnames of O’Mulligan and O’Mullican, the spread of O’Mulligans can only be estimated by barony, but it seems the highest number were found in the baronies of Clankelly and Magherastephana, where we find the strongest historical tradition with the rest spread over other baronies. As we will shortly note, the next counties with the highest number of O’Mulligans were located in Co. Longford and Co. Westmeath in Mid Ireland. The demographics of these figures show that by the time of the Irish Rebellion in 1641, the Muinter Maelagain in Co. Fermanagh were the largest O’Mulligan clan in Ireland with a genealogical tradition that is purported to be Airgialla, an old native people of Ulster.
Genelach Sil Gairbgaela (O’Garvalys)
[Book of Ballymote, folio. 66 v f]
There is a second Northern genealogical retention that belongs to the Airghialla, otherwise the Oirghialla in Ulster and might well have an important bearing on the Muinter Maelagain in Co. Fermanagh. According to John O’Hart, a branch of the O’Maolagan share a common ancestry with the O’Garvaly traced from ‘Fergus Garbhgeill’, said to be descended from Cairbre an Daimh Airgid. However, in the Book of Ballymote, they are traced from Fiachach Cassán son of Colla Crich (Forcrích), one of the three legendry Collas, who founded the kingdom of Airghialla. Traditionally, Colla Crich is said to have had four sons: Imchad, Findachad, Rochaid and Fiachach Cassán. From Fiachach Cassán (also called Fiachra) descend the Síl Fiachach Cassán, and their branches, the Airthir of Ard Macha, Uí Breasail, Uí Nialláin, Uí Dorthain, Uí Eochada, Uí Cruind and Uí Trena. The Book of Ballymote provides the earliest record of the O’Garvaly pedigree, which is not found in Laud’s Genealogies, Rawlinson B 502, Book of Leinster or Book of Lecan. The two pedigrees, respectively, are compared below to show their line of descent from the two sons of Colla Crich, king of Airghialla.
Fiachach Casan Rochaidh
Feidlimid Deach Dorn [or Deagha Dhuirnn]
Feic Fiach [or Feig]
Lugdach Criomthan Liath
Forco Eochaidh [Eochy]
Fuiric Cairbre an Daimh Airgid
Fergusa Gairbgaela Fergus Garbhgeill (a quo O’Garbhgeill)
Mailacain Maolagan (a quo O’Maolagain)
Muiridach Muireadach O’Garvaly
Both O’Hart and the Book of Ballymote agree on the lineage between Muiredach O’Garvaly and Fergus Garbhgeill, but diverge into two separate branches traced from two brothers, Fiachach ogr Fiachra Casan, and Rochaidh, the sons of Colla Crich, king of Airghialla. Brian son of Cairbre an Daimh Airgid is said to have been the brother of Daimhin, ancestor of the O’Daimhin, anglicised to Davin/Devine, former lords of Fermanagh; Cormac, ancestor of the Maguires who subsequently succeeded as lords of Fermanagh; Nadsluagh, ancestor of the McMahon lords of Farney in of Co. Monaghan. The Annals of Ulster date the death of Cairbre an Daimh Airgid to 514 AD, and with nine generations following him, it suggests Mailacain or Maolagain died sometime in the eighth century, long before the Book of Ballymote was compiled. By the time the family of O’Garvaly begins to emerge in history, O’Hart notes they were chiefs of Partarigh or Partry, an ancient territory at the Partry Mountains in Co. Mayo, defined by the civil parish of Partry”.
The schism between O’Hart’s genealogy and the Book of Ballymote appears to reflect a geographical split between Co. Mayo and another branch that remained in Ulster. If O’Hart’s genealogy is to be accepted, it also seems a branch of the O’Maelagain believed they shared a common ancestry with the O’Daimhin, Maguires and MacMahon. They are not mentioned in the Geinealaighe Fearmanach, but in the Annals of Ulster, already cited above, the Muinter Maelagain are the most likely since they lived under the O’Daimhin and Maguire lords in Co. Fermanagh. However, at the time of writing, I have been unable to find a pedigree from fifteenth century onwards that directly traces both the O’Garbhgeill in Co. Mayo and Muinter Maelagain in Fermanagh to the Síl Fiachach Cassán. Similarly, the possibility that a branch of the Siol Maolagain of Co. Donegal settled in Fermanagh cannot be ignored, particular as the genetic signature of the Muinter Maelagain remains unknown. If someone descended from the O’Mulligans in Fermanagh where to take a Y-
Counties Cavan, Monaghan, Leitrim and Longford
Along with County Fermanagh, Counties Cavan, Monaghan, Leitrim and Longford all bound one of the old historic provinces of Ulster, Connaught and Meath. Within these counties, there are several other place-
There are very few early references relating to the O’Mulligans in Cavan, Monaghan and Leitrim, though, there are some for Longford found in the Pardon Rolls. On 13 November, 1602, Sir Frances Shane, knight, issued a pardoned to ‘Shane O Diermot, Wm O Diermot, Philip Moleghine, and Oyne O Suleghane, Henry and Teige O Shymeghan, Gillernow O Suleghan, and Philip O Suleghan of Moyntergarane’ in the barony of Granard; to ‘Brene O Moleghan’ of Lysnenoan (modern Lisnanagh) in the barony of Granard; and to Edm. O Molegan of Tully, all in Longford. The following year, at Granard on 10 January 1603, a writ was issued in the name of King James I restoring to the O’Farrells and others all their lands in Longford, including ‘Shane O Diermot and Wm O Diermot in the 5 cartron of Muntergeran’, a district on the west side of Lough Gowna in Longford. On 22 July 1603,’ Patrick O’Mollgan’ of Granard, carpenter, was also granted a pardon. These references support the presence and number of Mullegans found in the Statistical Census of Ireland, and since they all appear in O’Farrell’s country, it is possible they may belong to the same kindred group.
The O’Farralls of Longford are traditionally associated with the Conmaicne, who are said to trace their decent from Fergus son of Róig, a pre-
The Variant names of Uí Maelcain, Uí Maelchein and Uí Mailgen
In modern Irish surnames, the old Gaelic names of Uí Maelcain, Uí Maelchein and Uí Mailgen can also be anglicised to O’Mullegan, O’Mulligan, Mullegan, Mulligan, Milligan etc. In his ‘An English Index to the O’Clery Genealogies’, a supplementary work to Seámus Pender’s edition of Cucogry O’Clery’s Book of Genealogies, Frank B. Payton indexed the genealogy of the Uí Mailgen of Thuaithe Da Muighe in Co. Offaly, under the variant surname of O’Mulligan. Furthermore, in his introduction he notes that the prime objective of the index is to assist the researcher without a knowledge of Irish by supplying the modern, anglicised versions of surnames and in this case, he employed the standard of anglicised forms used by Dr. MacLysaght in his works on Irish families and surnames.
Payton’s index to the O Mailgen of Thuaithe Da Muighe:
O Mulligan [or O Milliken], H. Mailgen Thuaithe Da Muighe, paragraph 1782. Remark, this name is now unknown from this derivation. Tuath da Muigh or Tuomoy lies in the Baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestown, Co. Offaly.
Seámus Pender edition of the Uí Mailgen of Thuaithe Da Muighe in Co. Offaly.
Genelach .H. Mailgen Thuaithe de Muighe
§1782. Maolgen m Fogartaigh m Cumuscaigh m Flaithbhertaigh m Floinn da conghal m Diomusaigh.
In his ONOMASTICON GOEDELICUM, Edmund Hogan notes the ‘Ui Maelchein in Tauth da Maige in Leinster’, and cites as his source the Book of Leinster, Book of Ballymote, Lebar Branach p. 152 and Dugald MacFirbis’, p. 471. In Dugald MacFirbis’s Book of Genealogies 1649-
Rawlinson B 502 (c.1130)
ÚI Failgi Iarmothá
Máel Cian m Fogartaich m Cumascaich m Flaithbertaich m Flaind* m Díumasaich m Congaile m Forannáin m Congaile m Máel h-
Note * Leinster, Ballymote and Lecan all add “dá Congal” to Flaind son of Díumasaich.
Book of Leinster (c.1160).
Genelach .H. Mael Cein (I Mithaige)
Máel cian m Fogartaich m Cumascaich m Flaithbertaich m Flaind dá Congal.
Book of Ballymote (c.1390).
Genelach Ua Máel céin Tuat dá Muigi.
Máel cian m Fogartaich m Cumascaich m Flaithbertaich m Flaind dá Congal.
Book of Lecan (c.1418).
Cland Maíl chén .i. taísig Tuaithi de mugi
Máel cian m Fogartaig m Cumascaich m Flaithbertaich m Flaind dá Congal.
In these genealogies, the Uí Maelcein are a branch of the Uí Fhailge, a people preserved in the name Offaly, formerly called King’s County. According to the Annals of Ireland, Maelcein or Maelchein lived about c.900, over seven hundred years before O’Clery and MacFirbis transcribed their Books of Genealogies. He had at least two sons, Lorcan and Conchobhar both lords of Ui Fhailge. Guaire son of Maelecain, priest of Clonmacnoise in Co. Offaly may have been another son.
Annals of Ulster AD 938
Concobur m. Mael Cein, ri h-
Chronicon Scotorum CS 938
Concupur p [canc.] Maoilchen ri h.fFoilge et a dha mac do marbadh la Lorcán mac Faolain; translated Conchobor son of Maeilchén, king of Uí Failge, and his two sons, were killed by Lorcán son of Faelán.
Annals of Ireland AD 942
Guaire, mac Mailecáin, sacart Cluana Mic Nóis, d'écc; translated Guaire, son of Maelecan, priest of Cluain-
The Clann is mentioned in the 14th Century Topographical Poem of Giolla Na Naomh O’Huidhrin.
Is O'Maoilchein of the rich heart,
Delightful is the smooth cantred of the plain,
Its border is like the land of promise".
O’Huidhrin wrote his poem prior to 1420, when he died. It was intended to supplement John O'Dubhagain’s Topographical Poem of Leath Cuinn (Meath, Ulster and Connaught). O’Huidhrin gives an account of the principal families of Leath Mogha (Leinster and Munster) at the time of the Anglo-
During the late twelfth century, after the invasion of the Anglo-
Tethmoy is mentioned in several other thirteen century State Papers relating to Ireland. In 1284, the Barons of Exchequer in Dublin paid to John de Saunford his expenses for going with the justiciary to ‘Tothmoy’ with 30 retainers, 27 sutlers and 37 horses and remaining there seven days during June 1281. In 1295, ‘Peter de Bermingham de Thotemoye’ was one of a number of liegemen in Ireland, who were commanded by Edward I to join John de Wogan, justiciary of Ireland, in preparation for service in England. In January of the following year, as ‘Peter de Brymynghehan de Thotemoy’, he was commanded to be at Whitehaven in England by March, to enter the king’s service in Scotland. Again, the following year, as ‘Peter de Bermingham de Tottemoy’, he and a number of other liegemen from Ireland, including Peter de Bermingham de Athenry, were commanded to join the king in England in preparation for his war in France. That same year in 1297, Henry son of Ririth was appointed coroner of Carbury, Totemony and Otymmy.
The Berminghams were notoriously ruthless towards the Irish, particularly the O’Connor Faly, who were the last of the native Irish kings of the Ui Fhailge. If the O'Maoilchein in Tuath da Muighe survived the atrocities committed by the Berminghams, it was not as lords of Tuath da Muighe. They had clearly lost their territory to Robert de Bermingham and over the next few generations, his offspring would continue to consolidate their control and lordship over the land of Tethmoy. The whole territory appears to have been feudalised by the end of the thirteenth century, and by the beginning of the next century, John de Bermingham, now earl of Louth, felt secure enough to found the Franciscan monastery of Monasteroris in Tethmoy in 1325. The Berminghams were called by the Irish ‘Mac Fheorais’, ‘Son of Peirs’, and their monastery was also called ‘Mainistir Mac Fheorais'. The name is preserved in the townland of Monasteroris in the old barony of Coolestown, where the town of Edenderry is located, not far from the old ruined monastery.
Counties Westmeath and Offaly in Mid Ireland
One sept that appears to have been overlooked are the ‘Muinter Mailchein’ in Cenel Fiachach, a people who lived in the old kingdom of Meath that bordered the marches of Tuath da Muighe, and if the Irish genealogies are to be believed, they descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages. The reference to them offers an alternative perspective, as to the origin and history of the O’Mullegans in Mid Ireland. In his ONOMASTICON GOEDELICUM, Edmund Hogan notes the ‘Muinter Mailchen in Cineul Fiachaidh in Kineliagh, County Westmeath’ and cites as his source Dugald MacFirbis’s Book of Genealogies, p.161. Under the Colmain móir, Hogan also cites the Book of Lecan and notes the following:
‘Colmain móir, i.e., Ui Mailechlainn with their relations and Hui Domnallain in Fearaibh Tulach, Hui Charraic, Mic Muirichen and Muindter Mailchein in Cenél Fiachach Meic Neill Naigiallaigh’
The Book of Ballymote (c.1390):
Clann Colman moir .i. .H. Maelechloind cona coibnesaibh & .H. Aeda .i. flaithi .H. mbhecon & .H. Fiacrach & Fir Muige Lacha cona flaithibh & .H. Domnallan i feraib Tulach & .H. Carraigh & Muinter Muiregen & Muinter Maelchein a Cenel Fiachach m. Neill isedh fodera as cailedh sechnon fer Midhi foro cruthsin fodaigh comad leo aireacus gach tuaithi & a forlamus do ghres.
The O'Clery Book of Genealogies records:
§766. Clann Colmain mhoir: hi Mail echlaind cona fodlaib, ocus cona coibnesaibh .i. .h. Aedha, ocus flaithi .h. mBeccon et .h. Fiachrach et fir maighe Lacha cona flathaiph, ocus .h. Domhnallan a feraibh Tulach, .h. Carraigh et muinter Muirrigein et muinter Mael cein i Cinel Fiachach mic Nell.
Finally, in the ‘Genealogical Tracts by Irish Manuscripts Commission’ by Tóirdhealbhach Ó Raithbheartaigh (C. 67, Book of Lecan): ‘The children of Colmán Mor, ie, [Ui] Mail[s]echlainn and their relations, and Ui Domnallain in Fir Tulach and Ui Carraicc and Meic Muiricen and Muniter Mail Chein in Cenel Fiachach son of Niall Naigaillach’.
The Cenel Fiachach are mentioned in the 14th Century Topographical Poem of John O'Dubhagain.
“We give first place to the manly sept,
The illustrious Clann-
Host of the girdles, comely their complexion,
Over the manly Cinel-
In his notes on the Cenel Fiachach, John O’Donovan’s makes the following observations.
Mc Eochagan's country, called Kenaliaghe, containeth in length xii myles and in breadth 7 myles. It lyeth midway between the ffort of Faly (i.e., Philipstown) and Athlone, five myles distant from either of them, and also five myles distant from Mollingare, which lyeth northward of it. The said Mac Eoghagan's country is of the countie of Westmeth, situated in the upper end thereof bending towards the south part of the said county; and on the other side, southward of it, is O'Moloye’s country. And on the south-
Based on the above statement, the original territory of the Cenel Fiachach extended from Birr in the barony of Philipstown in Co. Offaly, which bounds the baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestown, and on the north, the Hill of Uisneach in the barony of Rathconrath in Co. Westmeath. We are told it was divided between the Macgeoghegan and O’Molloy’s lords, with the former retaining the name Cenel Fiachach in Co. Westmeath and the latter holding the southern part in Co. Offaly, called Firceall. In the genealogies, it is worth noting that the Muinter Muiregen (now Morgan) and Muinter Maelchein are inserted in a section that follows the Clann Colmain móir, whose chiefs were the O Maoilsheachlainn, otherwise O’Melaghlin, and not after the Macgeoghegan or O’Molloy’s lords. The O’Melaghlens were kings of the Irish in the old kingdom of Meath.
Depending on the chronology and on how the phrase “in Cenel Fiachach” is construed, it could refer either to the lineage of the ‘cenél’ or the ‘territory’ named after the Cenel Fiachach or to both. With this in mind, the Ui Domnallain in Fir Tulach and the Ui Carraic, who gave their name to the parish of Carrick in Fir Tulach, otherwise anglicised to Fartullagh, were located in Terrill’s country, later called the barony of Fartullagh in the west of Meath, before it was shired under the Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act of 1543. They were not located in Macgeoghegan’s country. This leaves the Muinter Muiregen and Muinter Maelchein, who appear to have lived in Macgeoghegan’s country or at least in that territory called called Kenaliaghe, which is said to cover most of the baronies of Moycashel and Rathconrath.
Map 4 Co. Westmeath and Co. Offaly
Almost nothing is known about the Muinter Muiregen and Muinter Maelchein. There are no genealogical pedigrees or annalistic notations extant to delineate how they are related to the main branches associated with the Cenel Fiachach. Their background is obscure and all that can be said about them with any certainty, they were native families who lived in West Meath and in that part still held under nominal Irish control by the Mageoghegan chiefs. After the Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366, the Irish, those namely who remained under their own chiefs and laws, were put as a community outside the English law that ruled the colonists. Furthermore, in 1460, the Irish Parliament enacted that civic freedom and admission to trades could only be obtained by Irishmen after they had been granted ‘English liberty’ from the king, and had undertaken to be of English array, habit and apparel.
Even Irish chiefs had no right to plead in and be answerable in the royal courts. In effect, they were vassals owing simple homage to the English crown for their lands, but never subjects owing liege homage. They needed royal charters or an Act of Parliament to admit them to the English liberty. For the rest of the Irishmen population, individual charters of emancipation or naturalization were the only device for citizenship and freedom from the Irish Martial law or Brehon law. As result of the statutes of Kilkenny in 1366, two different legal systems (English and Brehon) operated in Ireland and this remained in place until 1603, when Brehon law was abolished under James I and English law was applied by local magistrates and royal representative. Prior to this, the authority of the crown was administrated through courts (palatinates or liberties), and was delegated to the earls and others. Most ran their own legal systems and probably used both common and Brehon law in their courts.
The earliest reference I can find to the O’Mullegans in West Meath, before it was shired in 1543, is traced to Sean O’Maolagain, also known as John Mulgan, rector of the parish of Lynn near Mullingar. His name was known to the Irish as O’Maolacain and O’Maolagain, and to the English and the Roman Church as Mulgan. Did they preserve his original surname? It seems so, as Mulgan is the anglicised form of Maelcain and Maelchein, and is used interchangeably with Mullegan or as it often appears in Medieval records as ‘Molligan’.
Translation: The Bishop O'Mullagan, i.e. Bishop of Leighlin, died.
Prior to his accession as bishop of the Diocese of Leighlin in 1419, Sean O’Maolagain, otherwise John Mulgan, was rector of Lynn, in the Diocese of Meath. Sean did not gain actual possession of his Episcopal temporalities of Leighlin until 1422. The bishopric of Leighlin embraced most of east Laois, Carlow and south Kildare. The parish of Lynn is located in the barony of Fartullagh or ‘Fir Tulach’. This old territory bounds the plain of Thuaithe Da Muighe in Co. Offaly (see Map 4) and raises the fascinating question, could the Muinter Maelchein have been the same family as the O'Maoilchein, otherwise the Ui Maelchein in Tuath da Muighe? The geographical context strongly supports a possible tie between them, and if the same sept in Co. Offaly, they could simply have moved across the marches and settled in the territory of the Cenel Fiachach. However, we have two separate genealogical traditions, one Uí Fhailge and an inferred Uí Niall, which are difficult to reconcile, unless the O'Maoilchein had indeed been displaced from their original homeland in Co. Offaly in North Leinster, during the early feudal period and by the Berminghams!
Significantly, in the Statistical Census of Ireland c.1659, a number of Mullegans appear in the northern part of Westmeath in the baronies of Cockaree and Fore. Where these families the descendants of the Muinter Maelchein or Conmaicne Rein? Interestingly, in the civil parish of Clonarney in the barony of Delvin, the townland of Mulliganstown was until the eighteenth century called Mulganestoun. It first appears on record in 1403, when it was held by Matthew Hussey, baron of Galtrim in Co. Meath. Very little is known about the early history of townland, which was part of the manor of Clonarney in the fifteenth century. It is located on the boundary between the barony of Delvin and Fore. In the adjoining civil parish of Killua there is an old family of Mulligan, who may have originally lived in Mulganestown. The civil parishes of Killua and Clonarney are included in the Catholic parish of Clonmellon.
The towns of Athlone and Galway
By the first half of the seventeenth century, the Mullegans of Athlone in Co. Roscommon emerge as an important family. They first appear on record in 1640, when the will of ‘Nichol Mullegan’, merchant of Athlone was registered at the Prerogative Court of Ireland. The original will was burned in the fire that destroyed the old Public Record Office in Dublin in 1922. Nichol or Nicholas was probably the father of ‘James Molligan’ of Athlone, who was one of a number of Irishmen and women sentence by the Cromwellian administration to be transported into Connaught probably for his part in the Irish Rebellion in 1641. Athlone stands on the boundary between two counties, Westmeath in Leinster and Roscommon in Connaught with the latter part located on the west side of the River Shannon. By a decree issued on 18 June, 1656, James was to be transported and by a settlement issued on 8 August, 1656, he was to receive 240 acres of land in Connaught, though, the land is unspecified. He was probably never transplanted, but remained in the town of Athlone.
Sir Bernard Burke, a genealogist, who was appointed Ulster King of Arms in 1853, compiled a series of pedigrees from wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Ireland. The earliest pedigrees relate to the Mullegans of Athlone, the first being Francis Mullegan, whose died in 1749 in Athlone. His will names his wife Mary, son James Mullegan of Athlone, daughter Ellinor Archer, her children Francis, John and Mary Archer, and his sister Mary Flanagan. His will was made probate on 5 December, 1749. His son James Mullegan, felt marker of Athlone, was granted a house and plot of ground where Francis Cabe lately dwelt now in the possession of James Mulligan, adjoining Thomas Moran’s plot, situated in the land leading from the market house of Athlone in 1720.
James Mullegan died in February, 1757, and was buried in Clonmacnoise Burial Ground in County Offaly, in the east end of the Cathedral is the following inscription:
I. H. S
Here Lyeth the Body of
James Mullegan of Athlone
Who departed this Life ye 5
Day of Febry 1757 Aged 43 years
[Memorials of the Dead in Ireland Vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 376]
To be continued.
Created 6th January, 2018: updated 29 January, 2019, 17 February, 2019.
Gallachair makes another interesting suggestion, ‘Tir Mac Carthain may have been represented by the Tirkeeran near Lifford, where there was later a settlement of MacSweeneys, who may have displaced the O’Mulligans, as they did the O’Boyles and a number of other septs of Tir Conaill’. Tirkeeran means ‘Tir Mac Carthainn’ and a townland with this name is located in the civil parish of Clonleigh in East Donegal. ‘
O’Mulligan DNA Research In Ireland
In the Statistical Census of Ireland c.1659, a fairly large group of Mulligans, spelt without the ‘O’, are found in Co. Longford and Co. Westmeath and they are divided into the following baronies:
Barony of Granard, Co. Longford
Mullegan …. …………… 16
Barony of Ardagh, Co. Longford
Mullegan ……………… 5
Barony of Fore, Co. Westmeath
Mulligan ………………. 8
Barony of Cockaree, Co. Westmeath
Mullican ………………. 5