A new sub-
Within the Milligan/Milliken DNA Project, it was known for some time that there were two major M222 branches, which share a common ancestor pre-
On 4 November, 2014, Iain Kennedy (R-
Another important discovery was reported on 13 January, 2014, when Iain identified A1774/5, a new subclade downstream of A224/A225. It was found between two surnames long associated with the south-
CLANSHIP AND ITS SURVIVAL IN SOUTH-
That the Gaelic structure of clanship survived in the south-
Richard Torrence has suggested Gilbert MacGillolane might be the same ‘Gilbert son of Dovenald MacKane’, the senior branch of the MacGillollane’, mentioned in his son John’s charter in 13295. The first element in ‘Clenconnan’ -
D.V. Cannon and R. C. Reid’s article, The Cannan Family in Galloway, still remains the principal source of history on the Acannan or Cannon family in Galloway8. The earliest reference is traced to Nevin Cannan, who with others, is mentioned in a Crown Remission dated 18 April, 1477, for the slaughter of Gilbert Rorison probably of Bardannoch in the parish of Glencairn in Nithsdale. They suggest the surname Cannon may well have come over from Ireland and draw attention to the name O’Cananain found in the Northwest of Ireland, where this family were once chiefs in Co. Donegal. However, neither Cannon nor Reid appears to have considered an alternative explanation, which places the origin of the Acannans in Galloway and not in Ireland. Furthermore, they do not explain the use of the prefix ‘A’, found in a number of other surnames in the south-
In his article The Celts (British and Gael)10, Prof. W. J. Watson suggested the Welsh ap in ‘Macrath ap Molegan’ appears to represent the initial ‘A’ found later in Cuthbert Amuligane in Nithsdale (1437-
There are several other notable examples in the south-
In his book Galloway Gossip, Dr. Robert Trotter refers to an old tradition still believed by some at the turn of the 1900s that those with the surname beginning with 'A' -
AMULIGANE, ACANNAN AND McKINNEY
There is an intriguing cluster of Amuligane-
The Amuligane lairds of Blackmyre, near Penpont in Nithsdale, came to possess two farms in the district of Glenken, which were held directly from the crown, through the marriage of Cuthbert Amuligane to Marion McNaucht, one of the two co-
From the earliest times in Galloway, the letter “k” in McKinney and McKenney was spelt with and used interchangeably with the letter “c” in McCanne or McCanny. In both styles, remarkably, McKenne and McCanny have been preserved in the place-
Dating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) between the Milligan/Milliken A743 branch and the Cannon and McKinney branches will go some way to estimating when these three groups shared a common ancestor and relationship with the other surnames found in the newly identified A223 Haplogroup. Within this haplogroup, there are essentially two branches of Cannons and both share the A822 SNP: for the purpose of this study the first group is classified as Cannon (13-
From the Milligan/Milliken DNA Project, I selected surnames confirmed and predicated A743, also known as A892-
Milligan/Milliken A743 Group
111 markers with margins between 1335 and 1555, median = 1445
67 markers with margins between 1390 and 1600, median = 1495
111 markers (McGee Utility) with margins between 1475 and 1700, median = 1600
67 markers with margins between 1440 and 1760, median = 1600
111 markers (McGee Utility) with margins between 1725 and 1800, median = 1762
67 markers with margins between 1605 and 1805, median = 1705
Based on the above estimates, Milligan/Milliken A743 branch share a common ancestor in the mid 1400s; the Cannon (13-
The critical period for genealogical research lies between 1200 and 1600, when the surnames Amuligane, Acannan and McKinney most likely evolved from their respective eponym and lineage-
IRONMACANNIE AND THE CLAN CONNAN
In 1984, the late Daphne Brooke proposed a hypothesis that the personal names qualifying the element ‘Ern-
Daphne Brooke offered her own proposal and speculated they may have come from the north-
The name Fáelán or Fáolán means ‘little wolf’, a name that is very close in meaning to Cano, meaning a ‘wolf-
In the thirteenth century, the personal name Conaing appears elsewhere in Scotland and where it has survived, it appears with frequency in charters written in Latin. The Scottish clerics who compiled these charters used a variety of styles in an attempt to preserve the Gaelic name and significantly, they produced some interesting linguistic forms that reflect local dialectics. In the old Gaelic earldom of Atholl in Perthshire, the last native earl Henry son of Malcolm named his natural son Coning anglicised to Conan. In the first of three charters dated between 1235 and 1250, his name is written as Conan de Basco, meaning Conan of the Wood, and Conanus filius henrici, meaning Conan son of Henry49. The next charter has Cumingi filii Henrici, which means Coning son of Henry; a name echoed in another charter, Cumming filio Comitis, meaning Coning the Earl’s son50. In the earldom of Lennox, Fergus son of Conaing seems to have been a frequent witness to grants issued by Maldoven, third of Lennox in Dumbartonshire. In those that have come down to us, his father’s name is spelt Cumyng (1224), Conig, Coning (c.1225), Cunig (c.1248), Cuning and Cuningham (1225-
The rich blend and variety of styles of naming illustrated here leaves plenty of scope for the names Conin or Cuning to have evolved into Conan and/or Connan. The presence of the name ‘Patricio Machconin’ would also raise the question; could Patrick have been the lineal ancestor of Malcolm McKenyn or McKenne, depending on how these names were vocalised? It is known that Nithsdale west of the river Nith, was still considered to be part of Galloway in the thirteenth century, and in documents relating to Edgar son of Dovenald, he is styled Edgar of Galloway. In 1212, he along with his son Fergus de Glencairn, rendered homage to King John of England at Nottingham for their men, their lands, tenures and possessions, in return for his protection and royal service. It is also noted that King granted Edgar the gift made by Henry, the king’s father, of all the land which Ewan, Edgar’s brother held in Straddune of the king of Scotland54. These lands seem to have embraced the parishes of Morton, Dalgarnock and Closburn on the east side of the river Nith. Like, Alan, lord of Galloway, and his cousin, Duncan, earl of Carrick, the loyalties of these great barons, at different times, wavered between the kings of Scotland and England depending on their politic ambitions!
Created 17/4/15, updated 28/6/15 and 09/09/15
MCKINNEY AND ACANNAN IN GALLOWAY
In medieval Scotland, the linguistic transition of Gaelic to Latin, Scots and English and the part translation and miscopying of Gaelic personal and family names, often left them shortened and in some cases barely recognisable. It would seem though the names McKinney and Acannan have fared better and their part translation is probably as near as we are going to get to the original Gaelic name. George F. Black notes McKinney and McKenny are variants of the surname McKenna, derived from the Gaelic name MacCionaodha, son of Cinaodh or Cináed, an old personal name found both in Scotland and Ireland30. In English, Cináed is usually part translated as Kenneth, Kenna and Kenny; the Gaelic consonant ‘c’ is pronounced as ‘k’ with the ending ‘dh’ or ‘d’ sounded as ‘th’, which is silent in Kenny. Several Scottish kings were named Cináed and included, Cináed mac Alpin, king of Pictland, who died in 858; Cináed mac Mael Coluim reigned from 971 until his death in 995: Cináed mac Dub, his cousin, was killed in 1005; he was succeeded by Mael Coluim mac Cináed mac Mael Coluim, who held the kingship until his death in 1034. The same year the Annals of Ulster also record the obituary of Suibne son of Cinaed, king of the Gall Ghaidheil, the Gaelic name from which Galloway takes its name.
We capture our first glimpse of the name McKinney in two writs relating to Malcolm McKenney, a juror at the sheriff court of Dumfries. Respectively, in 1347 and 1367, Malcolm’s surname is spelt McKenne and McKenyn31. To be a juror, Malcolm must have held property that placed an obligation of feudal service and required him to attend the sheriff's court when necessary. These jurors would have been picked from a group of men who would have had some knowledge of the lands under question, establishing if the claimant had a right to inherit the lands in question. The record of the lands held by Malcolm himself in return for feudal service have now been lost and are only clue lies in fact, he owned jury service to the sheriff court of Dumfries, whose jurisdiction in 1347 and 1367 seems to have extended from the river Cree in Galloway to Annandale in the county of Dumfries. There is a suggestion, the spelling of McKenne and McKenyn found in Malcolm’s name and in others, such as John McKinnay, whose name is also spelt McKennane, chaplain and curate of Kirkblane murdered in the 1530s, represent a linguistic variation of Canne and Cannane32. If the case, it would raise another question, could the old Acannan family of Killochy and Ellerbeg near Ironmacannie, have sprung from the same family group under a varied name? They spelt their lineage name either with or without the prefix ‘A’ and variously as Achannane, Cannane and Cannon.
The Scottish database of all known people of Medieval Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents, has references to men bearing the name Kenneth or Kenney, but none appear to relate or exist from the south-
Of the name Acannan, Black was less certain but thought it was probably derived from the Irish Gaelic O’Canain, a descendant of Canan, and diminutive of Cano, meaning a wolf-
Like the Acannan, the presence of the McKinney must be inferred before their first appearance in the district of Glenken, which is not until 1524, when Walter, abbot of Glenluce, brought a plea before the Lords of Council against James Gordon of Lochinvar, superior of the lands of barony of Balmaclellan. A number of witnesses were cited including Gilbert Mulykyn, Donald McKynnay and Hector McKynnay40. In 1542, William McGhie, lord of Balmaghie, granted to John “McKynny” in Glenshimmerock in the parish of Dalry, the 2 ½ merkland of old extent of Crae in the parish of Balmaghie41. The land of Glenshimmerock, a few miles north of Balmaclellan, was rented from John Gordon, lord of Lochinvar. John McKinney’s two sons, John and William, were by royal consent legitimised the following year, when he is called John Mckkynny in Glenshimmerock42. His son John McKynnay of Crae received a royal confirmation of his father’s lands of Crae in 154543. This old family were tenants and fuers of both the Gordons of Lochinvar and the McGhies of Balmaghie. Another branch of the McKinneys lived in the Dunscore area of Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire, where they appear to have been tenant farmers to the monks of Melrose Abbey and were neighbouring farmers with the Griersons and Amuliganes. The names of three McKinneys are recorded in 1565; John, Edward and Gilbert Makkynnay and the earliest records indicate they and their families lived at Nether Breidwell, Edgarton and later at Dempsterton.
Of the two surnames, McKinney appears to have been fixed before Acannan, which was probably a latter creation with “A” added to indicate the family of Acannan were either the grandsons or descendants of Cannan. In the 1400s, the use of the prefix “A” would still have been apparent to bilingual speaking Gaelic Gallovidians, and they may well have adopted this style to express their own traditional background and perhaps to distinguish them from the McKinney family, whose name seems to have been remembered in Ironmacannie near Killochy. If McCannie is the same as McKinney, this would by progression imply its source is the Gaelic name MacCionaodha, son of Cináed. However, as already noted, there is some evidence to imply Kennane and Cannane were interchangeable, and since these two names are so close, it is possible Cannie and Cannan may simply be diminutives of the same name or two different names that merged with each other in Ironmacannie. There is some evidence to indicate, this theory finds support in genetic research in America, where there are families bearing the surname McKinney and Cannon, who share the same SNP at A822/3 with the Amuliganes in Nithsdale and Glenken.