Index

Early Medieval Documents

Containing references to the Lands, Lords and People

Of Nithsdale in Dumfriesshire


1124 to 1250

[1] Dunegal of Strathnith

1124: Charter by King David to Robert de Bruce

David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus baronibus suis et hominibus et amicis Francis et Anglis salutem.  Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Roberto de Brus Estrahanent et totam terram a divisa Dunegal de Stranit usque ad divisam Randulfi Meschin; et volo et concedo ut illam terram et suum castellum bene et honorifice cum omnibus consuetudinibus suis teneat et habeat, videlicet cum omnibus illis consuetudinibus quas Randulfus Meschin unquam habuit in Carduill et in terra sua de Cumberland, illo die in quo unquam meliores et liberiores habuit.  Testibus Eustachio filio Johannis et Hugone de Morvilla et Alano de [Perci] et Willelmo de Sumervilla et Berengario Engaine et Randulfo de Sules et Willelmo de Morvilla et Henrico filio Warini et Edmundo Camerario. Apud Sconan.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 48-49, no. liv]


[Translation] David, by the grace of God King of Scots, to all his barons, men and friends, French and English, greeting.  Know ye that I have given and granted to Robert de Brus Estrahanent [i.e., Annandale] and all the land from the boundary of Dunegal of Stranit [Nithsdale] to the boundary Randolph Meschin; and I will and grant that he should hold and have that land and its castle well and honourably with all its customs, namely with all those customs which Randolph Meschin ever had in Carduill [Carlisle] and in his land of Cumberland on that day in which he had them most fully and freely.  Witnesses: Eustace Fitzjohn, Hugh de Morville, Alan de Perci, William de Somerville, Berengar Engaine, Randolph de Sules, William de Morville, Hervi son of Warin and Edmund the chamberlain. At Scone.

[Donaldson, Gordon: Scottish Historical Documents (1970), p. 19]

[Comment] Original in the Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. Facsimiles in Nat. MSS Scot I, no. XIX. Printed in Acts Parliament, Scotland, Vol. 1, p. 92.  Earl David succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Alexander I, 23 April 1124.  Henry I of England is known to have deprived Randolph Meschin of Carlisle and Cumberland in or shortly after 1120, when he succeeded to the earldom of Chester.  Yet, the wording of this charter suggests Randolph was not only still in tenure of Carlisle, but also that Brus had been granted Annandale before King David’s accession to the throne.   This charter contains the earliest known reference to Nithsdale, spelt Strathnith in medieval times.  The boundary between the lordships of Strathnith and Annandale appears to have been demarcated by the Deil’s Dyke near the junction of the parishes of Cummertrees and Ruthwell.


[2] Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother

1136: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

[Abstract] David, king of Scots, grants to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow part of Partick, which Ascelin archdeacon of Glasgow held of the king, by the marches by which Ailsi and Tocca held the land when it was in the king’s demesne.  In future the archdeacon is to pay the church the rent he used to pay to the king, namely one merk of silver yearly for the rest of his life. When the archdeacon dies the land shall remain in the service of the church. Witnessed by ‘Herberto Abbate de Rochesburc, Willelmo cancellario, Willelmo filio Dunecan, Malis Comite, Dunecano Comite, Fergus de Galweia, Aad cum barba, Malduueni mac murdac, Malodeni de Scona, Malodeni marescal, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duunenald fratre ejus, Uchtred filio Fergus, Hugone Britone, Herberto camerario, Gileberto fimboga, Gileberto de Striuelin, Dufoter de Calateria’. Apud Glasgow.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 85, no. civ]

[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 3.  It is stated in a charter by Bishop Herbert that King David granted part of Partick on the day of dedication of Glasgow Cathedral; and as it is probable that this charter is that referred to, which has been commonly dated to July 1136, the month in which the Cathedral was dedicated.  This charter contains the earliest reference to Radulf son of Dunegal of Strathnith, Duvenald his brother, and Fergus of Galloway.


[3] Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother

1136-1141: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

[Abstract] David, king of Scots, to his barons, officers, and all his liegemen of his whole kingdom, as well his Galloway (Gawensibus) men as English and Scotsmen.  It announces that he has granted to God and to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow, in perpetual alms, the tenth part of his cain in cattle and pigs due to him annually from Strathgryfe, Cunningham, Kyle and Carrick (all districts in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire), in each year except when the King himself stays in those districts and consumes his cain. Witnessed by ‘Willelmo Cumin cancellario, Hugone de Moreuilla, Fergus de Galweia, Hugone Britone, Waltero filio Alani, Alwino Mac Archil, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Dunenald fratre suo’. Dated at Cadzow.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 95, no. Cxxv]

[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 9.  Given the similarity of phraseology and listing of witnesses, it has been suggested by Prof. Barrow that this charter was issued at a date close to no. 2. Walter son of Alan doesn’t appear to have entered the king’s service as steward before 1136, whilst William Cumin remained chancellor until 1141.  The charter was granted at Cadzow near Hamilton in Lanarkshire.


[4] Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother

1136-1141: Charter by King David to the Church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow

[Abstract] David, king of Scots, to the king’s justices, sheriffs, barons, and all his officers of Cumberland, and announces that he has granted to the church of St. Kentigern of Glasgow, the eighth penny of all his pleas throughout Cumbria, both in money and cattle, and he orders that the church may enjoy this share as freely as any ‘elemosina’ can be given and held. Witnessed by ‘Willelmo Cumin cancellario, Fergus de Galweia, Hugone Britone, Waltero filio Alani, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duuenald fratre suo, Alwino Mac Archil’. Dated at Cadzow.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 96, no. cxxvi]

[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 10.  This charter was almost certainly granted the same day as no. 3, at Cadzow in Lanarkshire. Charters no. 3 & 4 appear to have been granted the same day with no. 2, sometime before, possibly in anticipation of David I’s invasion of England in 1138.


[5] Radulf son of Dunegal


1138-1139: Charter by King David to the Monastery of Wetheral in Cumberland

[Abstract] King David addresses his earls, justiciars, and all his liegemen of Cumberland, French and English and Cumbrians, and announces that he has granted to the monks of St. Mary’s at Wetheral Priory one mark of silver annually from the rent of his mill of Scotby.  His officers are commanded to let the monks have this mark without trouble at the terms appointed for receiving the rent of the mill.  He commands also that the monks have the tithe of Scotby as it had been given to them in earlier times. Witnessed by ‘Eustachio filio Johannis, Hugone de Morevill, Radulfo [blank], Herberto camerario, Jordano clerico’.  Apud Carlisle.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 95, no. cxxiii]

[Comment] From Dugdale’s Monasticon, vol. III, p. 584, taken from the original in the Charter Chest of St. Mary’s at York.  The mill of Scotby lies between Carlisle and Wetheral and was held by Uchtred son of Liulf under the king of Scots.  Prof. Barrow suggests the second part of Radulf’s name should read ‘filio Dunegal’.


[6] Radulf son of Dunegal


1147-1150: Charter by King David to the Abbey of Jedburgh in Roxburghshire

[Abstract] King David, prompted by Heaven, for the weal of his soul and for the souls of Henry his son and of his ancestors and successors, announces he has founded a monastery at Jedworth, and has established canons regular there, with the advice and assent of John late Bishop, and of his other bishops, earls, and barons and religious men.  He grants to this house the minster with everything belonging to it, namely: the teinds of the touns of the whole parish, the two Jedworths, Lanton, Nisbet (in Crailing) and Crailing belonging to Sheriff Cospatric with the chapel given by him and one and half ploughgates of arable and three acres with two tofts; the teinds of the other Crailing belonging to Orm son of Eilaf: the chapel of Scraesburgh (in Oxnam) founded on the Water of Jed in a clearing in the wood opposite Mervinslaw; the teind of the king’s venison in Teviotdale: all the renders due to the said minster, and in addition, these touns, namely, Ulston, Alneclive, Cromseth and Raperlaw; one toft in Roxburgh; one toft and a fishery in Berwick upon Tweed; Long Edwardly; pasture and timber in the king’s wood, except for Quikege; the multure of the mill from all the men of Jedworth where the castle is;: and a saltpan beside Stirling.  Witnessed by ‘Henricus filius meus, Herbertus Glasguensis episcopus, Robertus episcopus de Sancto Andrea, Gillebertus episcopus Dunkeldensis, Andreas episcopus Catanensis, Arnold abbas Calc., Gaufridus abbas de Dumfermlin, Albyn abbas de Sancta Cruce, Comes Duneth, Hugo de Morvilla [constabularies], Radulph filius Dugall et multi alii’.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 151 no. clxxxix]

[Comment] Original in the National Library of Scotland, MS. Adv. 34.3.11.  See also RMS, I, no. 92. It is known, Bethoc lady of Rule in Roxburgh, wife of Radulf son of Dunegal, was a benefactress of Jedburgh.  


[7] Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother


1150: Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews to Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow

[Abstract] Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, states that he has granted “et per libram saisisse” the church of Lohworuora to Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, “sicut de possessione Glasguensis”. The King and his Henry were present and assented to the grant. The Bishop reserved to the church of St. Andrews all Episcopal rights in the church of Lohworuora as in other churches in Lothian.  Witnessed by ‘Gregorio Dunchelden episcopo, Andrea Chatan eciscopo, Gaufrido abate de Dunfermelin, Ernaldo abate de Calceho, Alfwino abate de Sancta Cruce, Willelmo abate de Striuelin, Roberto priore de Sancto Andreae, Osberto priore de Sancta Cruce, Thoma priore de Scone, Thor archidiacono, Ascelino archidiacono, Eyolfo decano, Waltero cancellario Regis, Ingelleran cancellario comitis, Magistro Laurentio, Jordane Heyrun, Waltero capellano de Lillesclive, Nicholao clerico, Thoma de Linnithuc, Dunecan comite, Hugone de Moreuilla, Willelmo de Sumervilla, Cospatrico filio Waltheof, Waltero de Lindeseai, Willelmo fratre ejus, Bernardo de Boilond, Willelmo de Vesci, Odenel de Unfranuilla, Waltero de Bolebech, Alfwino Rennere, Eadwardo constabulario, Thor filio Suein, Willelmo de Graham, Arturo Finboga, Rogero nepote episcopi Sancti Andreae, Uhtred filio Fergus, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duuenald fratre ejus, Baldewino flam., Hug. Filio Fresechin’.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 185, no. Ccxxx]

[Comment] Original produced in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis (1843), no. 11.  Lawrie questions the authenticity of this charter, as the church of Lohworuora, or Locherwort, belonged to the monastery of Scone.


[8] The Marches of Strathnith


1150-1153: Charter by King David to Robert de Brus

D[avid] Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis et Anglis et Galweiensibus salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Roberto de Brus in feudo et hereditate illi et heredi suo in foresto, vallum de Anant ex utraque parte aquae de Anant sicut divisae sunt a forest de Seleschirche quantum terra sua protenditur versus Stradnit et versus Clud, libere et quiete sicut aliud forestum suum tenetur melius et liberius. Quare defend ne ullus venetur in praedicto forest nisi per ipsum super forisfactum decem librarum et ne ullus eat per praedictum forestum nisi recta via nominate. Testibus Waltero cancellario, et Hugone de Morevilla, et Waltero filio Alani, et Odenello de Umframvilla, et Waltero de Lindeseia, et Ricardo de Morevilla. Apud Stap[ilgo]rtune.

[Lawrie, Sir Archibald C.: Early Scottish Charters Prior to 1153 (1905), p. 162, no. cxcix]


[Translation] David, King of Scots to all the good men of his whole land, ‘Francis, Anglicis and Galweiensibus’. Know that I have given and granted to Robert de Brus in fee and heritage, to him and his heirs “in forest”, the valley of Anant on both sides of the water of Anant, as the marches are from the forest of Seleschirche, as far as his land extends towards Stradnitt (Nithsdale) and towards Clud (Clyde).  Wherefore, I forbid that anyone hunt in the foresaid forest, unless by his authority, on pain of forfeiture of ten pounds, or that anyone go through the aforesaid forest unless by a straight road appointed. Witnessed by Walter the chancellor, Hugh de Morville, Walter fitz Alan, Odenel de Unframville, Walter de Lindesia and Richard de Moville. [Dated] at Staplegordon.

[Fraser, Sir William: The Annandale Family Book of the Johnstones Earls and Marquises of Annandale (1894), Vol. 1, p. 129]


[Comment] Printed, with facsimile in The National Manuscripts of Scotland, Vol. 1, No. 20, and original in Duchy of Lancaster Charters.  A similar translation is also given in Joseph Bain’s Calender of Documents Relating to Scotland, A.D. 1108-1272, Vol. 1, p. 6.  Lawrie dates this charter to about 1147, Bain has it dated between 1124 and 1140, and G. W. S. Barrow assigns 1150 to 1153, which is followed here. The valley of the Anant, that is Annandale, is separated from Selkirkshire by Mirkside and Ettrick Pen; from Strathnith (Nithsdale) by a range of hills in Closeburn, Kirkmahoe and Tynwald; and from Clyde by Crawford.   


[9] Radulf son of Dunegal


1153-1160: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots confirms to the Hospital of St. Andrews one carucate in Kedlock (Fife) granted to it by Simon, son of Michael, and his heirs, to be held by the marches perambulated by Simon and those with him, and granted at Dunfermline in Fife. Witnessed by ‘Gregorio episcopo Duncheldensi, Andrea episcopo Cathernensi, Matheo archidiacono, G. Comite, Ferch’ comite, Dunecano comite, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Merleswein’. At Dunfermline.

[Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1841), pp. 194-5]


[Comment] Original in the St. Andrews Priory Cartulary, Nation Records of Scotland, GD45/27/8, folio 93.  Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. I, The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165 by G. W. S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1960), p. 198, no. 138. This charter was almost certainly granted sometime between 1153 and November 1160.     


[10] Radulf son of Dunegal


1160-1161: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, confirms in general all the churches, lands, possessions and liberties of St. Andrews (Cathedral) Priory, and in particular the grants made to it by his grandfather, King David, his father Earl Henry, himself, and Bishop Robert. Witnessed by ‘Gregorio episcopo de Dunkeld, Andrea episcopo de Cathern, Galfrido abate Dunf’, Matheo archidiacono, Comite Cospatricio, Hugone de Moreuill et filio eius Ricardo, Gilleberto de Umframuill, Waltero filio Alani, Hererto camerario, Merleswano, Nes filio Willelmi, Dauid Olifard, Roberto de Brus, Radulfo filio Dunegal [sic. Dunecani], Philippo de Coleuilla, Ricardo Cumin, Thomas de Lund’, Rogerio de Theruieth, Waltero clerico, Ricardo de Hospitali Ierosolimitano, Roberto fratre de Templo.  Anno ab incarnatione domini m’, c’, lx’ apud Sanctrum Andream’.

[Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1841), pp. 194-5]


[Comment] Original in the St. Andrews Priory Cartulary, Nation Records of Scotland, GD45/27/8, folio 94-95.  Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. I, The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, G. W. S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1960), p. 218, no. 174. Granted at St. Andrew possibly on 20 November 1160, when King Malcolm was at St. Andrews in Fife for the consecration of Bishop Arnold.  


[12] Radulf son of Dunegal


1160-1165: Charter by Radulf son of Dunegal to the Hospital of St. Peter of York

[Transcription] R[adulph] son of Dunegal, grants them of his heritage in Dumfries (sic. Dronfres) 2 bovates free of all custom and service. Witnesses: Gilchrist son of Brunn, and Gilendonrut Bretnach, Gilcomgal MacGilblann, and Udard son of Uttu, and Waldeve son of Gilchrist, and many others. Dumfries.

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307, Vol. II, p. 421]

[Comment] Extracted from a Roll of early grants by Scottish Kings and nobles, to the Hospital of St. Peter of York.  Gilchrist son of Brunn might have been the father of Waldef, who later appears as Dean of Dumfries.  Alfred Truckell has suggested Gilchrist and Waldef might represent a hereditary priesthood like that of Northumbria where Ailred’s father and grandfather, both named Eilaf, were hereditary priest of Hexham.  The full Latin text is given below, and is printed in Edgar’s History of Dumfries.


[Transcription] R[anulfus] filius Dunegal omnibus fidelibus sancte matris ecclesie filiis, salutem. Sciatis me dedisse Deo et pauperibus hospitalis Sancti Petri Eboraci partem terre de hereditate mea in Drumfres in perpetua elemosina, scilicet terram duorum boum liberam et quietaam ab omni consuetudine et servicio. Habitatores etiam istius terre sub mea firma pace et protectione suscipio. Testibus his, Gilchristo filio Eruini et Gilcudbricht Brecnach, Gilcomgal MacGilblann et Uduardo filio Vita et Waldevo filio Gilchristi et multis aliis apud Drumfres. Vatete.

[Edgar, Robert: An Introduction to The History of Dumfries (edited with an Introduction and Extensive Annotations by R. C. Reid), 1915, appendix A, no. 1, p. 217]


[Comment] Transcribed from Charter Rolls, 35 Edward I m. 8 and Cal. of Charter Rolls iii, p. 90-1. In the annotations by R. C. Reid, he notes the name “Eruini”, and states ‘perhaps we have in this witness the originator of the Irving Clan. Apart from tradition, Robert de Hirewine in 1226 is the first previously recorded (Book of Irvinings, p. 7)’ In Bain erroneously translates this name is given as “Brunn”.   


[12] Radulf son of Dunegal


1161-1162: [Abstract] Malcolm IV confirms to Jedburgh Abbey the church of St. Peter of Restenneth in Fife, together with all its churches, lands, possessions and liberties, which his precedecessors granted to that church; and provides that Abbot Osbert of Jedburgh shall place a prior and convent in Restenneth according to its capacity.  Witnessed by ‘Aernaldo Episcop Sancti Andree, Willelmo Episcopo Moreu’, Herberto Glasguense Episcopo, Gaufrido Abbate de Dunifermelin, Willelmo Abbate de Melros, Johanne Abbate de Kalchou, Willelmo Abbate de Eden’b’, Aluredo Abbate de Striuelin, Willelmo & Dauid fratribus meis, Ada Comitissa matre nostra, Waltero Cancellario, Engelramo Archidiacono, Nicholas camerario, Waltero Dapifero, Ricardo Conestabulario, Gilberto de Vnframuilla, Dauid Olifard, Hugone Ridel, Ricardo Cumin, Philippo de Coleuilla, Radulfo filius Dunegal’.  Apud Roxburgh.

[Fraser, William: History of the Carnegies, earls of Southesk, Vol. II, p. 475-6, no. 23]


[13] Radulf son of Dunegal


1161-1174: Bond between the abbeys of Holm Cutlram and Dundrennan

[Transcription] Agreement between the abbeys of Holm and Dundraynan. The latter made claim on Kyrkewinni, held by the former from Huctred filio Fergus.  It is agreed that Holm shall not acquire more land or build more houses or sheepcotes on the western side of the Nid [river Nith].  But on the eastern side, on land that belonged to Radulph filio Duvenald, neither house shall acquire more without the consent of the other.  Dundraynan shall have power to increase on the west side of the river, outside the land of the grange of Holm.  The flocks of Holm are not to go into the adjacent pastures so far that they cannot return at night to their own grange, until Dundraynan has got land for a grange, to enclose these pastures and prevent intrusion by the flocks of Holm.  The pigs of Kirkewinni can go into the woods of Huctred between the grange and the Nid, but in time of pannage the pigs of both abbeys shall get pannage outside the aforesaid wood.

[Grainger & Collingwood: The Register and Records of Holm Cultram; Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, Vol. VII, p. 52, no. 133]


[Comment] The land of Radulf son of Dunegal, spelt Duvenald, is mentioned in the following Papal Bull granted by Pope Alexander III.  As Uctred son of Fergus appears to be still alive the date must be between 1161 and 1174.


[14] Radulf son of Dunegal


1161-1165: Papal Bull by Pope Alexander III to the Abbey of Holm Cultram

[Transcription] Pope Alexander III to Everard, abbot, and the brothers of the monastery of Holm Cultram grants his sanction to their holding the island of Holm, granted by king Henry (II), and Kirkewinni, held in fee farm from Uctred son of Fergus, and the saltwork, pasture, etc there, and the lands of Colnehath and Karlaveroc granted by Radulph son of Donegal and confirmed by King Malcolm.

[Grainger & Collingwood: The Register and Records of Holm Cultram; Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, Vol. VII, p. 52, no. 133a]


[Comment] The original grant to Holm Cultram of the lands of Conheath and Carlaverock, confirmed by King Malcolm IV, must have been made between 1161 and 1174, when Uctred died.   Alexander III was pope between 1159 and 1181.


[15] Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother


1161-1164: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, informs Uchtred son of Fergus and Gilbert his brother and Radulf son of Dunegal and Duvenald his brother and all his good men of Galloway (Galwie) and Clydesdale (Cludesdalie) that he has given his firm peace to the men going to Galloway (Galweiam) to lodge or dwell in the land of Dunrod.  He confirms to the charter charters by which Fergus and his son Uchtred granted and confirmed this land to Holyrood Abbey.   Also, no one is to disturb anyone travelling towards or staying in this land for the purposes mentioned and that no one is to remain in the land against the will of the canons of Holyrood, on pain of the king’s forfeiture of ten pounds. Witnessed by ‘Aluredo Abbate de Striuelin, Roberto Priore de Mai, Engelramo cancellario, Waltero filio Alani dapifero, Johanne de Vallibus’. Apud Clackmannan.

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1840), p. 21, no. 26]


[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. I, The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, G. W. S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1960), p. 253, no. 230.


[16] Radulf son of Dunegal


1163-1165: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, confirms to the Priory of St. Marie and St. James of the island beside Renfrew Castle (afterwards Paisley Abbey) the whole of the said island with the fishing between it and Partick, the church of Paisley with two carucates of land, the carcute held by Walter the chaplain in Hassendean (Roxburghshire), the church of Innerwick (E. Lothian), and five merks of silver from the mill of Innerwick, all as granted by Walter son of Alan (the king’s steward). Witnessed by ‘Gergorio episcopo de Dunkeld, Comite Duncano, Comite Feret de [Strathearn], Gillebrid comite de Angus, Malcolmo comite de Atheld, Ada comitissa, Willelmo de Veteri Ponte, Gileberto de Umfrauill, Roberto Auenell, Gilberto filio Fergusii, Radulfo filio Dunegal, apud Castellum Puellarum’.

[Barrow, G. W. S.: The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, p. 270, no. 254]


[Comment] Original in the National Library, MS. Adv. 34.4.14, folio clii.   


[17] Radulf son of Dunegal


1165: [Abstract] Malcolm, king of Scots, grants to the Cathedral Church of Glasgow and to Bishop Ingram and his successors the land of Kinclaith (sic Cunclud), so that the king and his father, Earl Henry, and his grandfather, King David I, may obtain remission and absolution from the church of Glasgow in respect of all the transgressions committed by them against the church and its bishops and servants, if they have transgressed against them in any particular; and specially on account of the lands which King Malcolm granted to his barons and knights until the day when he took the staff of a pilgrim to Saint James (of Compostella), from which lands the church of Glasgow had been accustomed to receive rents and cain. Witnessed by ‘Willelmo fratre Regis idem concedente, Ricardo episcopo Sancti Andree, Johanne abbate de Kelcho, Nicholao cancellario, Waltero filio Alani dapifero, Ricardo de Moruill constabulario, Hugone Ridel, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Uhtred filio Fergus, Henrico Luuel, Dauid Ouiet’. Apud Jedburgh.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 16, no. 15]

[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. I, The Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots 1153-1165, G. W. S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1960), p. 276, no. 265. Granted at Jedburgh sometime between March and December 1165.

[18] Radulf son of Dunegal and Bethoc his wife


1165-1170: [Extract] King William confirms to the Abbey of Jedburgh all its possessions, including, “Ex dono Radulfo filii Dunegal et uxoris eius Bethoc unam carrucatam terre in Rughechestre et communem eiusdem ville pasturam”, a donation made by Radulf son of Dunegal and his wife Bethoc of the one ploughgate of land in Rughechester, Roxburghshire, with common pasture of the toun, granted at the establishment of Jedburgh Abbey in 1147. Witnessed by Richard Episcopus de Sancto Andrea, Engelramus Episcopus of Glasgu, Johannes Abbas de Calceo, Euerardus Abbas de Holcutr’, Nicholaus Cancellarius, Matheus archidiaconus de Sancto Andrea, Richardus capellanus, Walterus filius Alani, Ricardus de Moreuill, Philippus de Valoniis, Robertus Auenel, Bernardus filius Brien, Gillebertus filius Richerii, Dauid Quieth.  Apud Pebbles.

[Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214, by G. W. S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 163, no. 62]

[Comment] Original in the private archives of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry at Drumlanrig Castle in Dumfriesshire. The lands of Bethocrule (now called Bedrule), i.e. the lands on the river Rule of Bethoc, and Rughechester (now called Ruecastle), were Bethoc’s rather than Radulf’s and it seems that Radulf was Bethoc’s second husband.  Her first husband, Uchtred of Tynedale, a native Northumbria, was the father of Hextilda, wife of Richard Comyn, founder of the Comyn dynasty.  Hextilda’s mother, Bethoc, is said to have been the daughter of Donald Bane, King of Scots, who died in 1097.   There is no evidence to suggest Radulf inherited the lands of Bethoc, who predeceased him, rather her lands passed to Richard Comyn, Hexitilda’s husband and grandfather of another Richard Comyn, believed to have married Affrica, daughter of Lord Edgar of Nithsdale.  


[19] Andrew de Dumfries


c.1170: Charter by Uchtred son of Fergus to Richard son of Troite

[Transcript] Charter by Uchred son of Fergus addressed to all his men and friends, French, English and Galwegian, granting with consent of Roland his son and heir to Richard son of Troite and his heirs the whole land of Lochenelo to be held in fee and heritage for the service of one knight, and as long as I [have to] render the payment of chaan de Cro and of Desense Joan he shall give me yearly for his free service and customary dues to the king of Scotland, to me and my heirs; and when I shall be free and quit from the payment of (de) chaan he shall hold freely the aforesaid lands by the service of one knight. Witnessedby Christian the bishop, Robert his archdeacon, Gilbert the chaplain, John his nephew, Thomas the clerk of Torpenhow, Robert the sheriff’s clerk, Robert son of Troite, Bernard le Fleming, William and Nicholis, his nephews, Adam nephew of Robert son of Troite, Robert son of Sungeva, Ralf clerk of Carlisle, David son of Terrus (lord of Anwoth), Norman the hostage, Nicholas son of David, Augustine his brother, Ivo de Stoches, William son of Reinbold, Herbert son of Hugh the Marshall, William de Cantelu, Andrew de Dumfries, Henry son of Hodard, William the clerk of Lochmaben, Simon brother of Richard the Marshall, Gillecatfar, Gilbert his son, Gilmor Albanach, Gilcohel, Macherne with many others.

[Reid, R. C.: Wigtownshire Charters, Scottish Historical Society (1960), p. xix-xx]


[Comments] Original in Cumbria Record Office, D/Lonsd./L5/1/S1. The above transcript is copied from the transcript given by R. C. Reid, who extracted his from the translation of the Latin text given by the Rev. Frederick Ragg in his article Five Strathclyde and Galloway Charters in the Transactions of Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society (3rd Series (1918), p. 249-50). In his footnote on this charter, R. C. Reid remarks that Mr. Ragg in his reproduction of the original made one misreading, which Prof. Barrow corrects by pointing out that this passage is not chaan del cro et de Defense joan (which does not make sense), but should be rended as chaan de Cro and of Desense Joan.


Dr. D. C. McWhannell examined the original charter in the Cumbria Record Office and details the full list of witnesses in the ‘Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society’ (Vol. XLV, No. 1, p. 1-2), which includes three names missing from the copy given by R. C. Reid in 1960.  In his article, Dr. McWhannell comments that Reid’s ‘transcript also omitted some of the text of the original document’ and notes a ‘detailed examination of the text, lettering and contractions used and the penmanship of the scribe has revealed that the names previously given as “Gilchohel” and “Macherne” might more accurately be read as “Gilleconel” and “Oconactierne”.  In these forms, he suggests, respectively “Gill Chonaill” and “O Coneachthighearna” could mean the “devotee of Conall” and “the descendant of the hound of the horse lord”. The list below is a transcription of the Latin witness list in Ragg’s original article, which highlights the names missing in Reid’s.  


‘His Testibus, Christiano episcopo, Roberto archidiacono suo, Gilleberto capellano, Johanne nepote suo, Thoma clerico de Torpenneu, Roberto clerico vicecomitis Roberto filio Tructe, Bernardo Flandrensi, Willo et Nicholao nepotibus suis, Ada nepote Roberti filii Tructe, Roberto filio Sungeve, Radulpho clerico de Carliol, David filio Teri, Normanno obside, Nicholao filio David, Agustino fratre suo, Hivone de Stoches, Willo filio Renboldi, Herberto filio Hugonis maraschaldi, Willo de Cantelu, Andrea de Dunfrees, Henrico filio Hodardi, Willo clerico de Louchamaban, Simone fratre Ricardi Marchaldi, Gille Catphara, Gilleberto filio suo, Gillmore Albanac, Gille Cohel, Macherne cum multis aliis’.

[Ragg, Rev. Frederick: Five Strathclyde and Galloway Charters, article in the Transactions of Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society, 3rd series, vol. V, p. 49]


[Comment] In his ‘Acts of Lordship: The Records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234’, Keith Stringer’s reproduction of the Latin text and his footnotes add further insight into Uchtred’s charter and in particular, the names Gille cohel and Macherne, which he corrects to ‘Mactierne’. He observed the text and comments, ‘the scribe wrote at speed, and had to correct several errors. The use of capitals and punctuation is eccentric’. Stringer interpreted the name Gille cohel and Mactierne as one and the same person, e.g. Gillecohel Mactierne, with no comma inserted between these two names.  Following Stringer and McWhannell’s interpretations, this old Gaelic name could be read as ‘Gilleconel Oconatierne’.  


[20] Hugh Sine Manica de Morton


1173-1177: ‘W. Dei gratia Rex Scott’, uniuersis sancta matris ecclesie filiis salutem.  Sciant tam presentes quam posteri me concessisse et hac carta mea confirmasse ecclesie Sancte Marie de Kelch’ et monachis ibidem Deo seruientibus in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam donacionem ecclesie de Mortune in Strahnith quam Hugo sine manicis in presencia mea eis fecit cum una carrucata terre et cum omnibus iustis pertinenciis suis.  Volo itaque ut predicti monachi prenominatam ecclesiam habeant et possideant ita libere quiete et plenary sicut aliquam ecclesiam liberius quiecius et plenarius possident. Testibus Waltero de Bidun Cancellario, Waltero filio Alani dapifero, Henrico Luuel, Patricio filio Comitis Cospatrici’. Apud Jedburgh.

[Liber S. Marie de Calchou 1113-1567, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1846), p. 313, no. 404]

[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 241, no. 183. Narrates a confirmation to Kelso Abbey the church of Morton in Nithsdale granted, in the king’s presence, by Hugh Sansmanche (Sine Manicis), together with the one ploughgate of land. Prof. Barrow suggests “Hugone sine manica” appears to have been a tenant on the Honour of Richmond in Count Conan’s time. With his brother, Geoffrey, Hugh witnessed a charter of Alexander Musard and Wigan son of Cades, his heir, in favour of Easby Abbey, c.1152-62 (see Early Yorkshire Charters Volume 5, Honour of Richmond Part II, edited by William Farrer and Charles Travis Clay (Cambridge, 20213), p. 100, no. 179).
‘Hugh sine manicis’ must have been taken prisoner while fighting for the king of Scots in the war of 1173-74, for in 1175 land in the Honour paid £5 towards his ransom, and £5 was paid by Geoffrey de Stapleton for his forfeited chattels (see The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Twenty-First year of the reign of King Henry the Second 1174-1175, In the publications of the Pipe Roll Society Vol. 22 (1897), p. 6). Barrow suggested Hugh seems to have acquired an interest in Morton before 1173, but it is not known how; perhaps through his marriage to a daughter of Duvenald son of Dunegal, and Morton formed her marriage portion. Duvenald appears to have predeceased his older brother, Radulf son of Dunegal, who continued to witness charters without his brother present until the end of the reign of King Malcolm (1153-1165). Malcolm’s sister, Margaret of Huntingdon, married Conan c.1160, and through her marriage, she became known as the Countess of Richmond and Duchess of Brittany. Duvenald had two known sons, Ewan, an anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic name Eóghan, and Edgar, and possibly other sons, and daughters, whose names have gone unrecorded.


[21] Charter granted at Dumfries by King William


1175-1177: [Abstract] William, king of Scots, commands his justices, sheriffs and other officers to render to Bishop Jocelin of Glasgow all his dues, whether in teinds, cains, pleas and profits or any other dues, as they were accustomed to render them to the previous bishops. Witnessed by ‘Ricardo de Moreuilla constablulario, Waltero filio Alani dapifero, Waltero Olifard, Roberto de Quinci, Willelmo de Veteri Ponte’. Apud Dumfries.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 63, no. 71]

[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 245, no. 189. Prof. Barrow suggests that this Act would have been issued at Dumfries soon after Bishop Jocelin’s succession and probably belongs to the period when the King was trying to suppress unrest in Galloway, either in 1175 or 1176.


[22] Waltheof, deacon of Dumfries


1175-1178: [Abtract] Jocelin, bishop of Glasgow confirmed to Holyrood Abbey and by present charter corroborated, churches which it holds in diocese, namely, church of St. Constantine of Crawford with castle chapel and two ploughgates of land; church of St. Bride of Blacket with one ploughgate of land; church of Colmonell with chapel of St Constantine of Edingham and one ploughgate of land as charters of lord Uhtred established, and as charters of Bishops Herbert and Ingram establish and attest. Witnessed by John, abbot of Kelso, Lawrence, abbot of Melros, Amfred, abbot of Newbattle, Richard, abbot of Jedburgh, Simon, archdeacon of Glasgow, Master John, Elias, the clerk, Waldef, deacon of Dumfries and Peter, deacon of Stobo.

[Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1840), p. 42, no. 53]


[23] Parishes of Glenkarn and Strathnith


April 19, 1179: [Extract] Pope Alexander III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in “Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stratnud, Desnes” and whatever rights in “Galweia” [Galloway]; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Lateran.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 42, no. 51]


[24] Reference to the ancient fortification of Dumfries


c.1179: [Abstract] William, king of Scots, grants to the Cathedral Church of Glasgow and Bishop Jocelyn that toft at Dumfries which is between the ancient fortification and the (parish) church, i.e. from the fortification as far as the churchyard. Witnessed by David my brother, Abbot Ernald of Melrose; Richard de Moreville, constable; Walter de Berkeley, chamberlain; Philip de Valogn’. Granted at Selkirk.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 42, no. 50]


[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 264, no. 216. Prof. Barrow suggests this charter was granted probably in 1179.


[25] Parishes of Glenkarn and Strathnith


March 17, 1182: [Abstract] Pope Lucis III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in ‘Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stradnud, Desnes’ and whatever rights in ‘Galweia’ [Galloway]; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Velletri.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 49, no. 57]


[26] Donation of the Church of Dumfries to Kelso Abbey


c.1185: [Headed] Donation of King William to the church of Dumfries

[Translation] King William gives to us the church of Dumfries with the chapel of St. Thomas in the same burgh and the toft belonging to the same chapel.  And five acres of land belonging to the same church, thus that we may not alienate in any way the church or chapel or the returns from the working of our church and uses of the fruits.  And Jocelin the bishop confirms the gift of the king in the same form. Moreover, the clerk, Laurence, renders two shillings each year of his life for the teinds of kars belonging to the same church of Dumfries at Kelso at the markets of Roxburgh.  Radulph son of Dunegal gives to the church certain lands in Dunfres which thus can be cognosced. Two paths separate from each other within the village, by one of which is a way to the church of St. Blann; the other proceeds on the east and goes round a rock called Greneham and so by a certain path it returns to the same way from which it set out. All that land lying within these paths is given to God and the forenamed church. Adam son of Henry, by the assent of M., his wife, gave to Kelso Abbey those lands which he acquired by his legitimate purchase in the burgh of Dumfries, namely the lands which Robert the locksmith, Walter son of William, Robert Scott, Roger Suitor, Walter the butcher, Ralph the merchant, Alan son of Emma, Adam Summerswain and Alan of Bodham held from him, and he resigned all right and dominion which he had in the lands into their hands.

[Liber S. Marie de Calchou 1113-1567, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1846), p. 11, no. 11]


[Comment] The old parish of St. Blane was added to the parish of Caerlaverock. It is not clear of all these donations were made on the same day, as the charter is undated.


[27] The Church of Dumfries and Chapel of St. Thomas


c.1185: [Abstract] William, king of Scots, grants to Kelso Abbey for the use and building work of the abbey the church of Dumfries with its land, teinds and offerings, and with the chapel of St. Thomas in the burgh of Dumfries, with its toft, and with five acres of arable which the king has given to Dumfries church in free alms with which he has caused Philip de Valognes to invest the church. Witnessed by ‘Jocelino Glasguensi Episcopo, Hugone Sancti Andree et Johanne Dunkeldensi et Matheo Aberdonensi episcopis, Henrico Abbate Sancti Thomas, Comite Dunecano, Philippo de Valoniis, Willelmo de Lindesia’. Apud Dunfries.

[Liber S. Marie de Calchou 1113-1567, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1846), p. 317, no. 411]


[Comment] Reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. p. 289, no. 254.  Prof. Barrow comments that the king seems to have gained possession of Dumfries c.1185, whilst the beginning of the royal burgh may be assigned to this period.  Furthermore, it is observed that the reference to Philip de Valognes suggests he was acting as chamberlain, with the responsibility for royal burghs which certainly belonged to that office by the thirteenth century.  Finally, Barrow also observes the somewhat unusual attestation of the abbot of Arbroath in the south-west of Scotland may go to confirm the suggestion that St. Thomas’s chapel in Dumfries was dedicated to Thomas of Canterbury.


[28] Hospital of St. Peter in Dumfries

[Abstract] W[illiam] K. of Scots, grants to the Hospital of St. Peter, York, two and a half carucates in the territory of Dumfries and Kulenath in frankalmoigne, and freedom from toll and custom for all their men dwelling there except traders.  Witnesses: Joceline bishop of Glasgow, Richard de Morville constable, Robert the chaplain, Robert de Quynci, Hugh de Sigillo, and Richard de Prebenda his clerks, Robert de Bruys, Alan fitz Walter, Rolland fitz Uctred, Walter de Berkeley, chamberlain, William de Lyndsee.  Gretenhou (Gretna).

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307, Vol. II, p. 421]

[Comment] Original in the Public Record Office, C.47/2/4, no. 8 and reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 290, no. 255. The land of Conheath lies in the parish of Caerlaverock. This charter was probably granted c.1185, when King William gained control of Dumfries.


[29] Parishes of Glenkarn and Strathnith


June 12, 1186: [Abstract] Pope Urban III writes to Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, taking the church of Glasgow, a special daughter with no intermediary, into his protection; and confirms in general to Jocelyn, his churches, land and privileges, and names a long list of churches with all their chapels and other rightful pertinents in his diocese.  He also makes a general confirmation of the districts of his diocese in ‘Theuidale, Tuedale, Cludesdale, Eschedale, Ewichdale, Lidelesdale, Driuesdale, Annadsedale, Leuenaches, Stratgrif, Meornes, Largas, Kunigham, Kiil, Karrich, Glenkarn, Stratnud, Desnes’ and whatever rights in ‘Galweia’ [Galloway]; the teinds of the king’s cain in Kyle and Carrick, and the eighth part of all the king’s pleas in the diocese in gold, silver and animals; the tofts and lands in the king’s burghs pertaining to those churches and the prebends of the churches. Dated at Verona.

[Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 54, no. 62]


[30] Waltheof, deacon of Dumfries


1187-1189: [Abstract] Let all men present and to come known that this is the agreement made between Engelram, bishop of Glasgow, and Robert de Brus (the faith of each party being interposed), and finished and confirmed between Jocelin, bishop of Glasgow, and the said Robert de Brus, that, laying to rest the quarrel and controversy which was agitated between the bishops of Glasgow and the foresaid Robert de Brus concerning certain lands in Anandale, Robert (that is, de Brus) gave and granted to God and the church of Glasgow, and Engelram, the bishop, and his successors, in free and perpetual alms, the church of Moffet and the church of Kirkepatric with all their pertinent, which at the time he had in demense. Also he granted and by the present writ confirmed to the church of Glasgow and all the bishops of the said church the donation of the church of Drivesdale and of the church of Hodelm and the church of Castelmile, freely and quietly for ever. So by this final concord peace was confirmed between the church of Glasgow and the bishops of the said church and Robert de Brus and his heirs; but as the before-named Robert de Brus did homage to Engelram, bishop of Glasgow, and to Jocelin, his successor, for the good of peace and for love and counsel, in such wise he and his heirs shall do homage to their successors.  Before these witnesses: Simon, archdeacon of Glasgow, William, dean of Anandale, Walley, dean of Dunfres, William, parson of Lochmaben, Thomas, parson of Kastelmilc, Master William of Houeden, William and Walter, clerks of the bishop.  Witnessing also and granting: Robert de Brus son of Robert de Brus, John de Vaus, William de Brus, Ivo de Crossbi, Udard, steward (seneschal) of Robert de Brus, Robert de Brus, Richard de Crossbi.

[Neilson, George & Donaldson, Gordon: Guisborough and the Annandale Churches, article in the Transactions of Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society, 3rd series, vol. XXXII, p. 147-8]


[Comment] A copy of charter in Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1843), Vol. I, p. 54, no. 62. There are three witnesses missing in no. 62, William, parson of Lochmaben, Thomas, parson of Kastelmilc, Master William of Houeden. Waltheof’s name is spelt Walley in the Chartulary of the Priory of Gyseburne.


[31] William son of Peter, burgess of Dumfries


1189-1196: Roger Maule has given and granted and established by this his charter to St Bees Priory one saltwork in his half of Colvend, with easements of the wood, in free and perpetual alms, and one full toft in his half of Colvend, to build a house on, with pasture for four oxen and four cows and one horse. He has also granted the monks licence to cut material from his own wood for their own uses and for building their church.  Witnessed by Sir Rolland son of Uchtred, Thomas de Coleville, constable of Dumfries, William de Coningsburgh, Gilbert son of Gospatric, Robert de Port, Radulf de Luvecot, Laurence son of Orm, John the priest, Walter the clerk, Robert the clerk, William son of Peter, Robert son of Simon and many others.

[Wilson, Rev. James: The Register of the Prior of St. Bees, Surtees Society, no. 60]


[Comment] Dated between the appointment of Thomas de Colville constable of Dumfries and death of Roland of Galloway, probably before he acquired the constableship. Granted the same day as no. 62 (no. 33).


[32] William son of Peter, burgess of Dumfries


1189-1196: Roland son of Uhtred has given, granted, and established by his charter, to St Bees Priory in Coupland one saltworks in Preston with easements of his wood pertaining to that saltworks, in free and perpetual alms, and one full toft in Preston for building a house, with pasture for four oxen, for cows, and one horse. He has also granted license to cut material throughout his whole demesne wood, for their own uses and for the building works of their church. Witnessed by James, deacon, Gilbert son of Gospatric, Robert de Port, Radulf de Luvecot, John the priest, Lawrence son of Orm, Roger Maule, Walter the clerk, Durand the clerk, Robert the clerk, William son of Peter and many others.

[Wilson, Rev. James: The Register of the Prior of St. Bees, Surtees Society, no. 62]


[33] Duvenald’s sons, Radulf son of Dunegal, and Gillepatrick


1189-1195: [Extracts] Willelmvs Dei gratia Rex Scott’, Episcopis, Abbatibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, Justiciis, Vicecomitibus, Prepositis, Ministris et Omnibus probis hominibus Totius terre sue Clericis et laicis, Salutem.  Nouerint omnes tam posteri quam presentes me concessisse et presenti Carta mea confirmasse pro salute anime Regis Dauid aui mei et Comitis Henrici patris mei et pro salute anime mee et Omnium antecessorum et successorum meorum Deo et Ecclesie Sancte Marie de Kelchou et monachis ibidem Deo seruientibus in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam Omnes terras et ceteras possessiones suas quas habuerunt et tenuerunt in tempore Regis Dauid aui mei et in tempore Regis Malcholmi fratris mei - After the name of the benefactor is given, followed by the benefaction, there follows a long list of properties and privileges confirmed to Kelso Abbey including – [1] Dedi etiam et concessi prenominatis monachis ad usus et operationem ipsius ecclesie de Kelchou Ecclesiam de Dunfres cum Terris et decimis et omnimodis oblationibus et cum Capella Sancti Thome in ipso burgo et cum Tofta ad ipsam capellam pertinentem et cum quinque acris terre quas eidem Ecclesie et capelle in liberam elemosinam dedi et per Philippum de Valoniis eis tradi feci et cum omnibus aliis eiusdemi Ecclesie justis pertinentiis … [2] Concedo etiam eis confirm deciman animalium porcorum caseorum de cano meo de quatuor Kadred de Galweia ... [3] Et annuatim tredecim vaccas et totidem porcos de cano meo de terra quam filii Duuenaldi tenent pro excambio redditus quem predicti monachi solebant habere de cano de terra quam Radulfus filius Dunegal et Duuenaldus frater suus tenuerunt et de terra quam Gillepatrick frater eorum tenuit in Glencharn (not Gleneham) … [4] Et ex donacione Hugonis sine manicis Ecclesiam de Mortun in Strahnith cum una carrucata terre et cum omnibus aliis justis pertinentiis suis - Charter is witnessed by Jocelino Episcopo Glasguensi, Comite Dauid fratre meo, Aerkambaldo abbate de Dunfermelin, Hugone Cancellario meo, Symone archidiacono Glasguensi, Willelmo de Morevill’ Constabulario meo, Roberto de Londoniis, Roland’ filio Uchtred’, Willelmo de Lindes’, Malcholmo filio [Comitis Dunecani], Philippo de Valoniis, Alano filio Walteri, Geruasio Auenel constabulario de Rokesburg’, Waltero Corbet, Ranulfo de Sules, Herberto de Machuswell, Thoma de Colevill, Roberto [blank], Philippo de Setune, Herberto Mareschallo, Bernardo de Haudene’. Date at Roxburgh.

[Liber S. Marie de Calchou 1113-1567, annatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1846), Vol. I, p. 14, no. 13]

[Translations] [1] Furthermore I have given and granted to the foresaid monks for the use and operation of the church itself at Kelso, the church of Dumfries with its lands and teinds and all its payments along with the chapel of St. Thomas in the same burgh and the toft belonging to that chapel and with its five acres of land which is held in free alms by the church and Chapel, and I have given and caused these things to be handed over through Philip de Valon and with all other rights belonging to the same church.  [2] Confirmed a grant of the tenth of his cain of cattle, pigs and cheeses from his four kadred of Galloway.  [3] And 13 cows yearly and as many pigs as my rent in kind from the land which the sons of Duuenald hold in exchange for the return which the foresaid monks used to have in kind from the land which Radulf son of Dunegal and Duuenald his brother held and from the land which Gillepatric their brother held in Glencharn. [4] And from the gift of Hugo without fetters the church of Mortun in Strahnith with one ploughgate of land with all its other rightful pertinents.


[Comment] Original in National Archives of Scotland, GD 90/8, and reproduced in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 362, no. 367.  King William’s great charter to the Abbey of Kelso cites three charters, which have a direct bearing on Nithsdale.  The first refers to the grant made by King William sometime between 1183 and 1188, which is given in Part I, no. 24. The second refers to a grant made by the King to the sons of Duvenald son of Dunegal of the lands formerly held by their uncle, Radulf son of Dunegal, and  their father, Duvenald, in Strathnith, and their uncle, Gillepatrick in Glencairn, for the payment of 13 cows yearly and as many pigs owed to the king for his rent. Duvenald had two known sons, Ewan and Edgar, both of whom can be directly placed as lords in Strathnith. The third refers to the gift of Hugh Sine Manica of the Church of Morton in Strathnith, which appears to have been granted about the time Ewan and Edgar received their lands in the valley of Nith.  Also included, is the king’s grant of the ‘tenth of his cain of cattle, swine and cheeses from his four kadred of Galloway’, which is confirmed to the abbey in similar terms by King Malcolm IV in his great charter of 1159-60.  It confirmed his grandfather’s gift of a tenth of his cain of cattle, pigs and cheeses from his four Kadrez of Galloway’, which David I possessed in the lifetime of his brother Alexander I.  Prof. Barrow has suggested the four Kadred or Kadrez refer to the four districts of Strathgryfe, Cunningham Kyle and Carrick.


[34] Churches of Dumfries, Drumgrey, Traillfat and Morton


July 4, 1195: [Abstract] King William confirms to the abbey of Kelso and monks serving God there all the gift and concession made by Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow of the churches which the abbey has within the diocese of Glasgow by the reasonable grant of their patrons, viz., the churches and schools of the burgh of Roxburgh, granted by Herbert, bishop of Glasgow; the church of Maxwell with the chapel of Harlaw, according to the agreement between the monks of Kelso and the lepers of Harlaw.  And the following churches: Sprouston, Mow, Bowden, Selkird and ‘the other Selkirk’, Dumfries, Lesmahagow, Kilmaurs, West Linton, Innerleithen, Wiston with its two chapels, viz., Roberton and Crawford John, Thankerton, Symington, Cambusnethan, Dunsyre, Campsie, Antermony, Staplegordon, Drumgrey, Trailflat and Morton with all their chapels and other rightful pertinent. These are confirmed to Kelso Abbey with their rectorial rights for the monks’ own use and for their support, as the charter of Bishop Jocelyn and the charters of the patrons bear witness. His confirmation charter is witnessed by Hugh, his chancellor; Reginald, elect of Ross; Robert de Quincy; Robert de London, the king’s son; Saer de Quincy; William de Hay. Dated at Jedburgh.


[Comment] Reproduced in in Regesta Regum Scottorum Vol. II, The Acts of William I, King of Scots 1165-1214 by G.W.S. Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), p. 372-74, no. 379. Drumgrey was a parish in Annandale, adjacent to Garvald, and later included in the parish of Kirkpatrick.  Trailflat is in Tinwald.  The date is fixed by the attestation of Reginald as bishop-elect of Ross.  Saer de Quincy (d. 1219) was the son of Robert de Quincy (d.1200) and his wife, Orabile, daughter of Ness, son of William, lord of Leuchars.


[35] Radulf, deacon of Strathnith


1195-1196: [Abstract] Herbert, dean, and the whole chapter of Glasgow, with common consent and counsel, have granted and by their charter established to Melrose Abbey, in free, quit and perpetual alms, the church of Hassendean, which Jocelin, bishop [of Glasgow], assigned and established to the abbey, by the counsel, consent and grant of William, king of Scotland, and the counsel and consent of the chapter, towards the undertaking of beggars and pilgrims, and of which church there was a dispute between the king and the same bishop pertaining to the right of its patronage. The king granted what right he had or could have in the church of Hassendean to Bishop Jocelin, so that all the works of the church itself may be approved, paid, and converted for good use, to be held by Melrose Abbey, just as other conventual or parish churches in the diocese of Glasgow, saving a pension of 20s from the same church paid by Melrose to the bishop yearly at the feast of St Martin, and saving episcopal dues. His witnesses: Lord William, king of Scots, Earl David, his brother, our lord, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, Sir John, bishop of Dunkeld, Sir Richard, bishop of Moray, Sir Reginald, bishop of Ross, Simon, archdeacon, Master John, Roger de Houden, Elias, William, Bede, canons of our church, John, deacon of Teviotdale, Peter, deacon of Clydesdale, Thomas, deacon of the valley of Annan, Richard, deacon of Eskdale, Radulf, deacon of Strathnith, James, deacon of Desnes, Roger, prior of Paisley,  Walter and John, the bishop’s clerks, Philip, clerk of Mearns, and many others.

[Liber Sancte Marie de Melros, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1837), Vol. I, p. 113. no. 122]


[Comment] The Chronicle of Melrose records Bishop Jocelyn’s gift of the church of Hassendean as taking place in 1193.


[36] Radulf deacon of Dumfries & Martin his nephew


1198-1202: [Abstract] Roger, bishop of St Andrews, William, abbot of Holyrood, and Master Robert of St Andrews, papal judges-delegate, pronounce in the dispute between Kelso Abbey and Radulf, dean of Dumfries, and Martin, the clerk, his nephew, over the church of Dumfries. At length the case was amicably settled in the judges’ presence: Radulf and Martin renounced what right they seemed to have in the church of Dumfries and resigned into the abbot’s hands the charters about it which were in their possession. If any document about the church is found at any time they will not use it. The abbot and monks granted Martin, a clerk and their faithful man, the church of Dumfries with the chapels of the burgh and the castle and with all its appurtenances to be held from the monks for life, rendering annually to the monks as a pension 20 marks at Kelso, that is, 10 marks at Michaelmas and 10 marks at Easter, and paying the episcopal dues for all these. If the land of Dumfries should be destroyed by war, the abbot and monks will grant some remission to Martin according to the assessment of trustworthy men.

[Liber St. Marie de Kelso 1113-1567, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1846), p. 260, no. 324]


[Comment] Resignation is dated by consecration and death of bishop Roger of St. Andrews. He was absent in France August to December 1199, and in England October 1200 to February 1201. Radulf and his nephew, Martin, witnessed several grants made by Edgar son of Duvenald.