Scottish Index


Robertsons of Struan



The following list of primary sources, begins by listing the earliest royal and estate charters relating to the Clan Donnachaidh from Robert Duncanson, who succeeded to the lands of Struan as heir male to his uncle Thomas Duncanson of Atholl, back to the end of the thirteenth century.  Robert resigned his lands at Blair Castle in Atholl and in return, he obtained a charter under the Great Seal from King James II on 15 August, 1451, for the lands of Struan, the middle-part of Rannoch, Glenerochie, the two Bohespicks, Grannich with the loch and island thereof, Carrick, Innercardone, Fernan, Disert, Faskally, Kylkeve, Balnaguard and Balnefart and Glengarry with the forest thereof, all in the earldom of Atholl, which were then erected into the free barony of Struan for his good service rendered in capturing Robert Graham, the assassin of King James I in 1437, at Monastery of the Black Friars in Perth. Robert was baillie of the earldom of Atholl and may have been baillie as early as 1439. Robert was the son of Duncan son of Robert son of Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl, and married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Stewart, 1st of Bute, natural son of King Robert II.  He was succeeded by his eldest son Alexander Duncanson or Robertson of Struan (Strowan).   

The succession of the Robertson line is traced through the Duncansons back to ‘Andrew de Atholl’, whose toponymic or topographic surname is shared with Adam de Atholl in 1291 and MacBeth de Atholl in 1296. The dating of these two names suggests they were close relatives, perhaps brothers or cousins, and were very likely close relatives to Andrew de Atholl. To begin with I have listed the earliest references to the Adam de Atholl and MacBeth de Atholl, men who would also have had some knowledge of John de Strathbogie, earl of Atholl, known in medieval records as ‘De Atholia’. He succeeded to the title through his grandmother, Ada daughter of Forbflaith, who married David de Hastings, a French knight. Forbflaith was one of two co-heiresses and daughters of Earl Henry of Atholl, the other being Isabel, who on her death was succeed by Forbflaith. By a female line of successors, Ada came to inherit the title in her own right and not by her father, David de Hastings or her husband John de Strathbogie. By this line of succession, the title ‘De Atholia’ passed to her son, David de Strathbogie, who died in 1270, and her grandson John de Strathbogie, who inherited the earldom of Atholl and came to play important role in the affairs of Scotland, including, the succession to Scottish throne after the sudden of Alexander III, and the Wars of Independence until his execution in 1306 in London.

Earl Henry had an illegitimate son called Conan, who under the feudal law of primogeniture was excluded from the succession to his father’s earldom. In Conan’s lifetime and Ewen his sons’, there is little evidence to suggest they ever took the name ‘De Atholia’, perhaps in recognition of the kinship and high status held by Isabel, Forbflaith and Ada, the countesses of Atholl.  They also appear to have served them in capacities in keeping with the feudal offices of the thirteenth century. Conan is called of the woods, an inference to his service as chief forester and his woods of the Glen Errochty and others in Atholl (see part I, no. 16). There is no evidence to suggest Ewen was born illegitimate and on the death of his father, he inherited his lands and forests; he was able to confirm his father’s donation of the easements of all his woods of Glen Errochty and Tulloch to the Cistercian Abbey of Coupar Angus c.1263. He was also able to wadset the land and forest of Coille Bhrochain to the same abbey in 1282. There is every reason to accept both Ewen and Malcolm, son of Conan, were contemporaries of Adam de Atholl and MacBeth de Atholl, but since neither of these men can be directly linked to Ewen and Malcolm, at this time, their exact relationship cannot be established.

MacBeth de Atholl is described as being an ‘esquire’, ‘armiger’, an armour-bear, a man who provided military and feudal service to his overlord in return for land and other privileges, including, a coat of arms. Almost nothing is known about MacBeth, except what is listed below in relation to his capture at the battle of Dunbar and imprisonment at Wallingford Castle in Oxfordshire (then in Berkshire) in 1296. He was imprisoned with Constantine de Lochore (Loghore) and Michael Scott of Balwearie in Fife, knights.  Constantine and his uncle Hugh de Lochore, also captured at Dunbar, are known to have been sheriffs of Perth and Fife. Constantine was released from Wallingford Castle after the king instructed the constable on 31 July, 1297, ‘to release Constantine de Loghore, captured at Dunbar, as he had been mainprised John Comyn of Badenoch’, who gave surety for his release1. Michael le Scot, along with David de Cambroun, Laurence de Angus and Walter de Butheregask also imprisoned in Wallingford Castle were freed in 1297 to serve in Edward I’s army in France. Only MacBeth was left imprisoned in Wallingford2.  Later in January, 1298, the king would give direction to the sheriff of Berkshire, for an allowance to be paid to Edmund, earl of Cornwall, for MacBeth’s maintanence and upkeep until he was set free. Of his place, land and relationships with the kin in Atholl, the lack of material evidence leaves a huge gap and only serves to bring into sharp focus the shared topographic origins with Andrew de Atholl and his son, Duncan, who held land under the earls of Atholl and other magnates in Perthshire.

[1] Johan conte de Aschele


March 14, 1290

Parliament at Brigham, confirms the Treaty of Salisbury.

List of earls: Malys de Stratherun, Patrik de Dunbar, John Comyn de Boghan, Dovenalde de Mar, Gileberd de Anegos, John de Aschele, Gauter de Menetehe, Robert de Carrike, Guillaume de Sotherlande, Johan de catenes, contes (count, Old French).

[Stevenson, Joseph: Documents IIustrative of the History AD 1286-1306 (Edinburgh, 1870), Vol. I, p.129]

Note: The Treaty is written in French and was signed by the Guardians of Scotland, the bishops, earls, including John, conte of Atholl, and the barons and knights, including “Johan Inchmartin”. The treaty was agreed with Edward I, king of England, to secure the return of Margaret, Maiden of Norway, to Scotland, but she died on her way from Norway to England. The following year, with a number of claimants to the Scottish throne, another treaty was insisted on by Edward I to secure the succession and amongst those who signed the agreed to be loyal to him were John, earl of Atholl, and Adam de Atholl.

[2] Adam de Atholl

May 1291 – November 1292

Johan comte de Atheles.

Adam de Athetle [Atholis], burgenfis Sancti Johannis de Perth.

[Bannatyne Club: Instrumenta Publica Sive Processus Super Fidelitatibum et Homagiis Scotorum Domino Regi Angliae Factis (Edinburgh, 1834), pp. 9, 17, 27 & 29]

Note: In 1291, ‘Adam de Atholia’, burgess of Perth, was one of a number of Scottish men who took the oath of allegiance to King Edward I of England.

[3] MacBeth de Atholl

At Roxburgh, May 16, 1296, the king’s writ:

Scottish prisoners taken in Dunbar Castle committed to the following prisons, including:

Constantine de Loghore, Michael le Scot, knights, David de Cambroun, Mak Beth de Athol, Laurence de Angus, and Walter de Bothergask, esquires, to Wallingford castle.

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307 (Edinburgh, 1884), Vol. II, no. 742]

[4] MacBeth de Atholl

At Roxburgh, May 16, 1296

Warrants to commit 77 of these prisoners from Dunbar to various prisons

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307 (Edinburgh, 1884), Vol. II, no. 743]

Note: According to Joseph Bain, some of the names in this list differ from those in the first list, including Mak Beth, who is called Malcolm de Athol. The writer has examined the original warrant in the Chancery Miscellaneous Portolios (C 47/22/4/2) and notes that the name is very faint to read with the first element of the name possibly ‘mal’, though, the “I” could be for a “k”, the rest is unclear to me. The name De Athola is written on the next line in a part of the text more visible to read.  This the document below seems to repeat the same information, where the name is Mak Beth.

[At Roxburgh?] May --, 1296

Walyngford – H. de Bayous Mittet Vic’ Oxon’

Dominus Constantinus de Loghore

Dominus Michael le Scot

David de Cambroun

Mak Beth de Atholia

Laurencius de Anegos

Walterus de Bothergask

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1357-1509, Addenda 1221-1435 (Edinburgh, 1888), Vol. IV, no. 1768]

[5] MacBeth de Atholl

February 12, 1297: King’s Writ to the Sheriff of Oxford and Berkshire for sums allowed to Constantine de Loghore, and Michael le Scot, knights, David de Caumbroun, Mak Beth de Atholia, Laurence de Angus, and Walter de Bothergask, esquires, prisoners from Dunbar castle, and 2 wardens in Wallington castle, from 1st June to Candlemas (2 February, 1296/7); to Laurence de Stathbolgy, Henry de Inchemartin, knigts, William de Kilpatrick of Vaudemund, Alexander de St Clair, Robert de Muntcurt, and Alexander Corbet, esquires, prisoners from Dunbar, in Windsor Castle, and their two warders, from 3rd June till Candlemas. [One esquire died on St Nicholas’s day.]  Dated at Ely.

[Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1272-1307 (Edinburgh, 1884), Vol. II, no. 873]

[6] MacBeth de Atholl

January 24, 1298: Rex vicecomiti Oxoniae et Berk’, Salutem

Ex insinuatione dilecti consanguinei et fidelis nostril Edmundi comitis Cornubiae accepimus quod habere faceres Mak Beke de Atholia, armigero, inimico nostro, in conflict castri de Dunbar in Scotia capto, et in castro prae dicti comitatus de Wallingforde commoranti, vadia pro sustentatione sua quamdiu moran fecerit ibidem, viz., per diem iij d., tu vadia praedicta eidem prisoni a xxix die Septembris, anno xxv (quo die vadia illa ei liberasti (set freed), prout nobis constat per compotum tuum ultimo redditum ad saccarium nostrum), hunc usque solver non curasti, tibi praecipimus quod eidem prisoni vadia sua habere facias juxta mandatum nostrum alias tibi inde directum donec aliud tibi praeceperimus, ne amplius inde clamorem audiamus. Teste thesaurario, xxiiij die Januarii, anno xxvj.

[Stevenson, Joseph: Documents IIIustrative of the History of Scotland 1286-1306 (Edinburgh, 1870), Vol. II, p. 270, no. 504]

Note: The king writes to the sheriff of Oxford and Berkshire instructing that an allowance of is made to the for the maintenance of Macbeth de Atholl, armiger (esquire), the king’s enemy at Dunbar and held in Wallingford Castle. The allowance was allowed from 19 September, 1297.  

[7] Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

1341-1346: King David II confirms to Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

Index A, No. 1395

Carta Roberti filii Duncani de Atholia De maritagio heredis de Glenesk.

Index B

Carta [confirmationis] by Robert son of Duncan earl of Athol to Alexander Meinzeis of Fothergill, upon the marriage of Jean daughter to said Robert, one of the heirs of Glenesk.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), App. II, no.1395]

Note: Robert son of Duncan was not the earl of Atholl.

SUMMARY: The earliest verifiable ancestor of the Clan Donnachaidh is Andrew de Atholl. As far as can be traced no contemporary record has been found that identifies the name of Andrew’s father or his immediate lineage within the earldom of Atholl, but some evidence exists to show, the toponymic surname ‘De Atholia’ came to be applied to men associated with the land or barony of Atholl by 1290.  Andrew lived about the time two other men are known to have carried the name ‘De Atholia’, Adam and MacBeth, both of whom appear in contemporary records listed below, which demonstrate the earliest direct link to a noble family, who took the title “De Atholia”, secondary to the earls of Atholl.

[8] Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl

1341-1346: King David II confirms to Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

Index A, No. 1396

Carta Duncani filii Andree de terris de Desheuir Tweqwer etc.  

Index B

Carta given by Duncan earl of Fyfe to Duncan son to Andrew earl of Athole, of the lands of Discheuer and Twcheuer in the barony of Strathurde.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), App. II, no.1396]

[9] Duncan son of Andrew

1345: Robertus Senescallus Scocie, balliuus omnium terrarum Comitis de Fyfe infra regnum Scocie, Duncano filio Andree, capitali Foristerio de Brannan, salutem: Litteras Comitis de Fyfe nobis nuper directas recepimus patentes, quarum tenor subsequitur in hec verba: Duncanus comes de Fyfe, etc. Quarum quidem literarum autoritate tibi et foristariis sub te constitutes mandamus et firmiter precipimus quatinus predictas metas et diuisas, vt premittitur, eidem Johanni et heredibus suis quatenus in vobis est, sine contradictione, sub pena omnium que erga dictum comitem amittere poteritis, inuiolabiliter obseruari faciatis in futurum.

[Fraser, William: The Red Book of Grandtully (Edinburgh, 1867), Vol. I, p.3, no.3]

Note: Precept by Robert Steward of Scotland, to Duncan son of Andrew, Head Forester of Brannan, anent the marches of Morthley.

[10] Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl

1347: Indenture between Sir William de Moray of Tulybardyn (Tullibardine), knight, on the one part, and Duncan son of Andrew de Athole on the other part, whereby the said Sir William de Moray, wadset, to the said Duncan son of Andrew and his heirs for the land of Balnakerd, and an annual rent of ten merks out of the land of Balnafere in Athole for the sum of £50 Stirling. Witnessed by Walter de Innyrheffrey, Rector of the Church of Blare; Donald M’Ynayre; Andrew Clerk; Christin Macgullaglame, etc. Date at Dull in Athole 7th ........ 1347.

[Blair Atholl Castle, NRAS 234/7/volume 523/8]

[11] Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl

February 8, 1352

Duncan son of Andrew de Atholia, of the diocese of Dunkeld.

[Johnson, C, & Bliss, W.H.: Calendar of the Entries in the Papal Registers (London, 1897]

[12] Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl

December --, 1355

Nobili viro Duncano filio Andree de Atholia et heredibus suis masculis terrarum de Adulia.

[Robertson, J. A.: Comitatus De Atholia: The Earldom of Atholl (Edinburgh, 1860), p. 19]

Translated by Robertson - To a nobleman, Duncan, the son of Andrew de Atholl, and his heirs male, the lands of Apnadul.

Note: Apnadull is an old name for Dullnagarth, but which has long been obsolete.

[13] Robert son of Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl

1358: Et nihil hic de exitibus curie vicecomitis per tempus compoti, quia cecidit, nisi de hiis de quibus extitit deforciatus per Robertum filium Duncanii filii Andree de Adtholia, super quo consulatur rex.

[The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland 1264-1359 (Edinburgh, 1878), Vol. I, p. 555]

[English] And there is nothing here said of the fees of the Court of the Sheriffdom [of Perth], for the time of the account that has elapsed, except those as to which there arose a deforcement made by Robert, the son of Duncan, the son of Andrew de Atholl, upon which the King is to be consulted.

1358: Item, allocantur computanti, sub xij lib, per difforciamentia sibi facta per Robertum filium Duncani et Fergusium filium Ade, pro defectu secte terrarum de Balnefert, Balnacrechy, Balnakard, Glendoch, Atholia, et de Foryirgill, et ad hec probanda idem computans se obliguit, vt supra.

[The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland 1264-1359 (Edinburgh, 1878), Vol. I, p. 558]

[English] Also the allowance of L.12 in the account, for the deforcements made by Robert, the son of Duncan, and Fergus, son of Adam, for default of suit of the lands of Balnavert, Balmachrochie, Balnaguard, Glendochart, Atholl, and of Fortingall; and to prove this, the accountant obliged himself, as above mentioned.

Note: The foregoing entry in the Exchequer Rolls proves Robert, son of Duncan de Atholl, possessed parts of the lands of Balnaguard and Balnavert in Strath Tay, which are both mentioned in the Crown charter of erection for the barony of Strowan to Robert’s grandson, in 1451.  Deforcement is a crime consisting of resistance to officers of the law whilst executing their duty in civil matters.

[14] Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

1363: King David II confirms to Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

Index A, No. 1456 Index B

Carta Roberti filii Duncani de terries de To Robert son to the earl of Atholia of the half lands of  

Fordill. Ferdill in vicecomitatus de Perth.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), App. II, no.1456]

May 24, 1363: David Dei gracia Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus tocius terre sue clericis et laicis salutem. Sciatis nos dedisse concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse Roberto filio Duncani de Atholia, pro homagio et servicio suo, medietatem omnium terrarium nostrarum de Ferdalle cum pertinenciis, infra vicecmitatum de Perthe. Tenendam et habendam eidem Robert et heredibus suis de nobis et heredibus nostris in feodo et hereditate, per omnes rectas metas et divisas suas, libere quiete integer et honorifice, in boscis et planis moris marresiia viia semitis aquis stanis molendinis multuris eteorum sequelis pratis pascuis et pasturis, aucupacionibus venacionibus et piscariis, cum fabrilibus et bracinis, bondis, bondagiis nativis et eorum sequelis, et cum omnibus aliis et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus aysiamentis, et justis pertinenciis quibuscunque tam non nominates quam nominates ad dictam medietatem terrarium spectantibus seu juste spectare valentibus infuturum. Faciendo forinsecum servicium nostrum pro dicta medietate terrarum. Incujus rei testimonium presenti carte nostre sigillum nostrum precepimus apponi. Testibus venerablilibus in Cristo patribus Willelmo episcopo Sancti Andree et Patricio eiscopo Brechinensi cancellario nostro, Roberto senescallo Scocie comite de Stratherne nepote nostro, Roberto de Erskyne camerario nostro Scocie et Thoma Byset militibus. Apud Perthe, vicesimo quarto die Maii anno regni nostril tricesimo tercio.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), no.138]


Note: The above transcript is the only extant copy of the original charter now lost. Index B is taken from William Robertson’s copy (1793) of a now lost Index dating from the early 1600s. It has been demonstrated to contain a number of errors and in it we find Robert called ‘earl of Atholia’, which is factual in error.

[15] Robert son of Duncan de Atholl

April 20, 1367: Dauid Dei gracia rex Scottorum Roberto filio Duncani de Atholie salute. Ex certis euidenciis nobis nuper ostensis accepimu quod racione cuiusdam vendicionis Duncano patri tuo facte de maritagio dilecti consanguinei nostril Gilberti de Glencharni per Laurencium Gelibrand militem ad quem dictum maritagium vt audiuimus nullatenus pertiebat, destruis et destrui facis terras de Glencherny que sunt dicti nostril consanguinei juris ordine in omnibus pretermisso. Quare tibi in fide et fidelitate quibus nobis teneris firmiter precipiendo mandamus quatinus a quibuscumque destructionibus et perturbacionibus dictis terris decetero inferendis omnino cessatis et cessare facias. Ita quod dictus consagnuineus noster et hominess sui de suis terris et possessionibus quos et quas sub nostra speciali protection tenore presencium recepiums pacifice valeant congaudere. Et si aliquod ius in maritagio dicti nostri consanguinei aut alias contra eundem uel contra militem antedictum, tibi videatur competere illud coram nobis et consilio nostro prosequaris et tibi inde fiet quod iuris fuerit et racionis. Et hoc sub pena que exinde poterit prouenire nullo modo omittas. Illam namque causam ad nostram audienciam specialiter reseruamus. Datum sub sigillo nostro secreto, apud Elgyn, xxm0 die mensis Aprilis anno regni nostri tricesimo septimo.

[Fraser, William:  Chiefs of the Grants: Charters (Edinburgh, 1883), Vol. III, p.13, no. 19]

Note: Letters under the Privy Seal of King David II, king of Scotland, inhibiting Robert son of Duncan of Atholl from wasting the lands of Gilbert de Glencairne. He was the son of Gilbert, 3rd Earl of Strathern and Maud D’Aubigny.  This charter is also in the Acts of David II, King of Scots, 1329-1371, edited by Bruce Webster, Vol. 6 of the Regesta Regum Scottorum (Edinburgh, 1982).

[16] Adam son of Fergus and Adam

March 13, 1385: Charter by John eldest son of the King of Scotland (afterwards King Robert II of Scotland, Earl of Carrick, Steward of Scotland, and lord of Atholl, to Adam, son of umquile Fergus, the son of Adam, for his homage and service, of the lands of Cluny, McBrydy and Kynaird, with their pertinent, lying in the Earldom of Atholl and Sheriffdom of Perth, which lands Robert son and heir to the said deceased Fergus, the son of Adam, freely resigned in the hands of the granter, at Dundonald, the thirtieth of March, in the year 1385, in the presence of Thomas Rate, James of Schaw, John of Schaw, Patrick of Lumle, Sir Thomas of Mauchane, chaplain, John Brown and many other trustworthy men; to be held by the said Adam, and his heirs of his body, of the granter, and his heirs or assignees, Earls of Atholl, in feu and heritage, as fully and freely as the said Fergus, his father, held the said lands, paying the common suits yearly at the granter’s courts of Logyrate and forinsee service. In witness whereof the seal of the granter is affixed. Witnesse, the foresaid persons; day, year and place above mentioned.

[7th Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscript (1879), Appendix, Part II, no. 15]

Note: Fergus son of Adam is mentioned in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland in 1358, when Fergus and Robert son of Duncan son of Andrew de Atholl where charged with deforcement for resisting the sheriff of Perth. Fergus was the ancestor of Adam Fergusson.

[17] Patrick Duncanson, Thomas Duncanson, Robert de Atholl

March 25, 1392: At a Parliament held in Perth. Robert, by the grace of God king of Scots, to his sheriff and bailies of Aberdeen, greeting. Know that from the deliberation of many good and faithful men of the three estates of our kingdom, recently caused to be assembled in our presence for holding a council upon various necessary points touching us and our people, we accepted an ordinance, also counsel and decreet. In order that we should take steps to ensure that notorious wrongdoers dwelling in the highland parts of the kingdom, who have inflicted and continually inflict without cease slaughters and burnings and other great harms and injuries on our faithful subjects already for a considerable period of time, are restrained and curbed from committing such evil deeds with aforethought intent, and similarly compel them to compear for justice for the crimes committed by them, therefore we command you to be strictly forewarned that without delay, seeing the present [letters], you put and cause to be put to the horn and publicly adjudged to be denounced all and singular of the men written below and their accomplices, followers and adherents, whom we, from the said deliberation, counsel and decreet, caused to be put at the king's horn and whom, at our town of Perth on 25 March last, we decreed to be adjudged and publicly proclaimed at the horn in market places, namely: Duncan Stewart, Robert Stewart, Patrick Duncanson, Thomas Duncanson, Robert de Atholl, Andrew MacNair, Duncan Bryson, Angus MacNair, John Eason the younger, and all their other adherents who were at the killing of Sir Walter de Ogilvy, Walter de Leighton and the rest of our lieges killed with them, also Slurach and his brothers and all Clanqwhevil, William Mowatt, John de Coutts, Donald de Coutts, with all their adherents, David de Ross, Alexander MacIntaylor, John MacIntaylor, Adam Rolson, John Rolson, with all their adherents, Duncan Neteraulde, John Mathies, with their adherents, Morgownde Rorison and Michael Mathies, with their adherents, and all and singular their other supporters or participants who were present at the killing of Sir Walter de Ogilvy, Walter de Leighton and our other faithful men killed in the same place. And in the same proclamation you are to prohibit by our royal authority publicly and expressly that anyone of our kingdom, of whatever pre-eminence, standing or condition they shall be, should receive the aforenamed wrongdoers or others, or allow them to be received, who have committed homicides, burnings, destructions, pillages or other terrible crimes on the people within their boundaries, lands, lordships, fortalices or castles, publicly nor secretly, nor provide counsel, help or favour, nor allow [them] to travel through or to spend the night in their districts, or to make a stay in them in any way; on the contrary, immediately on seeing such people, or such a person, by day or night, let them pursue him or them until they arrest them or kill them, under the penalty of the loss of life and limb, and under the penalty of disinheritance of lands and possessions if it shall be found otherwise by the finding of an assise .. etc.  Given under the testimony of our great seal at Perth on 26 March in the second year of our reign, etc [1392].

[Acts of the Parlianment of Scotland 1204-1423, Vol. I, p. 217]

Note:  This letter of Proclamation was issued at a Parliament held in Perth on March 25, 1392, and was given under the great seal of Scotland in the presence of King Robert III, who succeed his father Robert II in 1390.  He was born John Steward but changed his name to Robert after he became king of Scotland.  His father, Robert was the first of Steward earls of Atholl, which was granted to him by David II in 1357.  According to Wyntoun’s Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, the highland men lead by the Stewards grew out of a feud between Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk in Angus and the three great highland chiefs, ‘Thomas, Patrick and Gibbone, and Duncansonnys wes thare surnowne’. Robert de Atholl, who was the eldest son of Duncan de Atholl, is not mentioned in his list.

[18] Thomas Duncanson de Atholl

c.1393: King Robert III confirms to Thomas Duncanson de Atholl

Index A, No. 1793 Index B

Carta Thome Duncansone de terries To Thomas Duncanson of Athol, of the lands Strathoche or

de Straloch Thomethury. Easter Davache Thomcury, Dekarwand, Dalacharmy. Perth.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), App. II, no.1793]

Note: The lands of Straloch, Tominturie.  

[19] Thomas Duncanson de Atholl

c.1393: King Robert III confirms to Thomas Duncanson de Atholl

Index A, No. 1794 Index B

Carta tallie dicti Thome de omnibus To Thomas Duncanson of Athol, of Strowane, ane

Terries suis. ratification of all his lands, with a tallie.

[Thomson, John Maitland (editor): Registrum Magni Signilli Regum Scotorum, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland A.D. 1306-1424 (1984), App. II, no.1794]

Note: This charter is called a Charter of Tailzie.

[20] Patrick Robertson of Atholl

August 7, 1419: Dispensatio matrimonialis. Patrick Ioberti de Atholia, diocese of Dunkeld, of noble race, has committed fornication with Margaret McNab, related to him in the third degree of affinity, and both on account of the scandals which might arise among their kinsmen from this knowledge, and for their soul’s weal, they desire to be united in matrimony, but because of this affinity they cannot fulful their desire without apostolic dispensation; therefore they supplicate that the Pope would absolve them and dispense them, nothwithstanding the impediment of impediment of consanguinity [sic, but above, affinity], to contract and remain in matrimony lawfully, and freely, decreeing legitimate the offspring to be born of the union.  At Florence 7 Id. Aug., anno 2.

[Lindsay, E. R. and Cameron, A. I. (editors): Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome 1418-1422 (Edinburgh, 1934) p. 101]

[21] Duncan Robertson of Atholl, Patrick Patrickson & Patrick Robertson

September 21, 1428: Instrument narrating that in a court held at Logierait by Walter Stewart, earl of Atholl and Caithness, John McNabe, laird of Bovayan, produced a precept by Robert, duke of Albany, for it to be transcribed. Witnessed by Sir Donald McNachtan, dean of Dunkeld, doctor of decreets, Sir John and Sir William, rectors of Blair and of Streckan, Duncan Robertson, Neil Steuart, Patrick Patrickson or McPatrick, and Patrick Robertson. Notary: Robert Maxtoun, clerk, St Andrews diocese.

[Papers of the Campbell Family, Earls of Breadalbane NRS GD112/2/34/3]

[22] Duncan Robertson of Atholl

April 1, 1434: Charter of Walter, earl Palatine of Strathern, earl of Athole and Caithness and justiciar on the north side of the water of Forth, making known that in his justice-ayre of the regality of Athole, held at Logyrate, 31 July, 1433, compeared William, abbot of Coupar, in name of his convent, to pursue a brieve of dissasine of the lands of Tulacht within the earldom of Athole against John Laurentii, thane of Glentilt, which he prayed might be read and put to an assise. John compeared and made counter-allegations. The assise by consent continued the decision to the determination of the assise elected to determine the brieve of novel dissasine pending between Duncan Roberti de Athale, on the one part, and Patrick de Rettre and his wife anent the lands of Raynacht, on the other, at Perth before them on a certain day. Which day at Perth in the tollbooth thereof, the parties submitted the decision to an assise, who gave for verdict that the abbot and convent had been unjustly disseised by the said John and ought to have resasine, with the fermes during the period of their dissasine, viz., seventy years at least. The assise at Perth consisted of the following jurors: “domini Walteri de ogilby domini de luntrethyn, domini johannis de hawden, domini de gleneges militum, johannis lindesay domini de Biris, Roberti levynstone domini de drumry, Dauid de murrefe de tulybardy, Ricardi lufale de balumby, johannis de Lummysden vicecomitis de fife, johannis de Carmychale, Thome monypeny de petmuly, walteri dempstare de Ochtirles, magistri Alexandri de guthry, johannis de spensa de Bothquhopill, Thome charteris, andree merser, Nigelli ramsay de Banff, Trestrami de gorty, Willelmi de Cardne, patricii buttyr et Ade fergussone”.

[Charters of the Abbey of Coupar Angus, Vol. 2, Charters CXIX to CCCX, 1166-1389-1608, Scottish History Society (Edinburgh, 1947), 3rd Serious, Vol. 5, no. 73]

[23] Duncan Robertson of Atholl

January 20, 1438: Charter by Duncan Robertson of Athole, with consent of Robert his son, to his vernerable kinsman, Sir Donald McNachtan, Doctor of Decrees, Dean of Dunkeld, of certain roods of land in Little Dunkeld, for a certain sum of money paid to him by the said Donald beforehand. To be held of the granter and his heirs, the said Donald paying to the lord superior of the said lands the usual and ordinary service. In testimony whereof the seal of the said Duncan is appended, along with that of the said Robert, his son. Dated at Seymeyr, 20 January, 1438.

[7th Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscript (1879), Appendix, Part II, no. 33]

[24] Robert Duncanson & Donald Paterson

June 1, 1443: Charter by Robert Duncanson, Lord of Fynnach, to his cousin Sir David of Murray, Lord of Tulibardyne, knight, for his counsel, help, and favour, of the lands of Fynnach, within the earldom of Strathearn and Sheriffdom of Perth. To be held by him and Margaret his spouse, and survivor of them, and the lawful heirs of their bodies, who failing, by the nearest lawful heirs of the said David whomsoever, from the said Robert Duncanson and his heirs, of the King, as Earl of Strathearn, in feu and heritage for ever; rendering therefor to the King, as Earl of Strathearn, the usual services. In testimony whereof the seal of the said Robert Duncanson is affixed thereto. Dated at Dunkeld, 1st June, 1443. Witnessed by Andrew Gray, Lord of Foulis, John Hering of Lethindy, John Stewart of Kyndrocht, Donald Paterson, Robert of Maxtoun, and many others.

[7th Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscript (1879), Appendix, Part II, no. 34]

[25] Robert Duncanson

June 1, 1443: Letters of bailiary by Robert Duncanson, Lord of Fynnach, appointing Tristram of Gorti of that Ilk, and Andrew Mercer of Inchbreky, his bailies, to give seisin of the lands of Fynnach to Sir David of Murray, and Margaret his spouse, in terms of the following charter. Dated at Dunkeld, 1 June, 1443.

[7th Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscript (1879), Appendix, Part II, no. 35]

[26] John Donaldson of Lude

February 17, 1448: Procuratory of resignation whereby Donald Paterson (Patricii) constitutes Mr Edward Gray his procurator to resign his lands of Loyde [Lude] in the Earldom of Atholl and Sheriffdom of Perth, into the hands of the King. At Perth. Witnessed by Andrew, Lord le Gray; John of Haddingtoun; David Flemyng; Andrew of Inchemartin; William Scoule; John Bunche and Andrew of Muncrefe. Notary: Andrew Umfrai [Humphrey], clerk of the diocese of St. Andrews. Seal of Patrick Charters, burgess of Perth, procured by the said Donald.

[Papers of the Robertson Family of Lude, Perthshire 1448-1923, NAS, GD132/1]

[27] John Donaldson of Lude

March 31, 1448: Charter under the great seal to John Donaldson (Donaldi), eldest son of Donald Paterson (Patricii), following on no. 1. At Strevelyn and witnessed by William, Lord Creghtoun, chancellor; William, Bishop of Glasgow, keeper of the privy seal; John, Bishop of Dunkeld, secretary; William, Earl of Douglas; George, Earl of Angus; Alexander Levingstoun of Calenter, knight; John Sibald of Balgouny, knight; James Levingstoun, keeper of the King's person and captain of Strevelyne, and Robert Levingstoun, comptroller.

[Papers of the Robertson Family of Lude, Perthshire 1448-1923, NAS, GD132/2]

[28] Elizabeth daughter of Robert Duncanson

July 22, 1450: Rex concessit George Menzies filio et heredi apparenti Joh. Menzeis de le Weme, et Elizabeth sponse ejus, filie Roberti Duncani:—terras de Morynche, vic. Perth:—quas dictus Joh. personaliter resignavit:- Tennend.  dictis Geo. et Eliz. et eorum alteri diutius viventi, et heredibus inter ipsos legitime de eorum corporibus procreatis, quibus deficientibus, legitimis et propinquioribus heredibus dicti John quibuscunque:- Reservato libero tenement dictarum terrarum David M. patri dicti John.

[Register of the Great Seal of Scotland 1424-1513, Vol. II, no. 376]

[29] Robert Duncanson, baillie of the earldom of Atholl

Accounts of Baillivi ad Extra, rendered at Holyrood, from 3rd to 17th July, 1450.

July 8, 1450: Compotum of Robert Duncansone, Baillie of the earldom of Athole, apud Edynburgh in the Monastry of Sancte Crucis, of the recepts, expenses and rents from 20th October, 1439, to 8th July, 1450.

[Exchequer Rolls of Scotland 1437-1454 (Edinburgh, 1882), Vol. V, p. 415]

Note: The earldom of Atholl was in royal hands by 1439.

[30] Matilda daughter of Thomas Duncanson

August 4, 1451: Rex confirmavit Matilde Duncansoune filie quondam Thome D:— terras de Cogreth, Dalherny, et Thomamry, in comitatu Atholie, vic. Perth:- quas eadem Matilda resignavit:- Tenend. Dicte Matilde pro tempore ejus vite, et post ejus decessum, Johanni Alexandersoune filio Alex. Reid Patriksoune, et heredibus ejus de corpore ejus legitime procreatis, quibus deficientibus, Alex. Reid fratri dicti Joh. et heredibus, &c. (ut supra), quibus def., legitimis et propinquioribus heredibus dicte Matilde quibuscunque: - Reddend. Servitia debita et consueta. Apud Edinburgh.

[Register of the Great Seal of Scotland 1424-1513, Vol. II, no. 490]

[Translation] The king confirmed to Matilde Duncansoune, daughter of the deceased Thomas Duncansoune – in the lands of Cogreth, Dalherny and Thomamry, lying in the Lordship of Athol, Sheriffdome of Perth – which the said Matilde had resigned into his hands.  To be held by the said Matilde in liferent and after her decease by John Alexandersone, son of Alex Reid Patriksone and the heirs of his body, legitimately procreated by him, whom failing to Alex Reid, brother of the said John and his heirs etc (as above) whom failing of legitimate and nearest heirs of the said Matilde whomsoever: - Reddendo services used and wont.

[31] Robert Rioch Duncanson of Struan

August 15, 1451: Rex confirmavit Roberto Duncansoun de Strowane, et heredibus ejus:- terras de Strowane, terras dimedietatis de Rannach, terras de Glennerach, duobus Bohaspikis, Grannech, cum lacu et insula ejusdem, Carrie, Innyrcadoune, Farnay, Disert, Faskel, Kylkeve, Balnegarde et Balnefart, Glengary cum foresta ejusdem, in comitatu Atholie, vie. Perth:— quas idem Rob. apud castrum de Blar in Atholia personaliter resignavit:— et quas rex, pro favore et amore quos gessit erga dictum Rob. pro captione nequissimi proditoris quondam Roberti le Grahame et pro ipsius Roberti D. gratuitis diligentiis et laboribus circa captionem ejusdem sevissimi proditoris diligentissime et cordialissime factis,—in uam liberam baroniam de Strowane univit et incorporavit: - Faciend. tres sectas curiis in tribus curie capitalibus, vic. Perth. Apud Edinburgh.

[Register of the Great Seal of Scotland 1424-1513, Vol. II, no. 491]

[Translation] August 15, 1451: The king confirmed to Robert Duncansoun and his heirs – the lands of Strowane, the half lands of Rannach, the lands of Glennerach, the two Bohaspiks, Grannech, with its lake and island, Carrie, Innyrcadoune, Farnay, Disert, Faskel, Kylkeve, Balnegarde and Balnefart, Glengary with its forest, lying in the Lordship of Athole and Sheriffdome of Perth – which the said Robert had  personally resigned at the Castle of Blar in Athol – and which the king for the favour and love of the said Robert for capturing the worthless traitor, the deceased Robert le Grahame and in gratitude to the said Robert for his diligence and labour involved in his capture with care and cordiality – to be incorporated into a single free barony of Strowane. Holding 3 suit courts in 3 head courts, Sheriffdom of Perth. At Edinburgh.