Index


The Viking Age and Scandinavian Settlement



One part of modern Galloway that has received more attention in the Irish and British sources than the rest of the region is the Rhinns of Galloway in Wigtownshire. References to the Rhinns are found in the Irish Martyrologies and Annals and they locate Candida Casa in the Rhinns.  The Martyrologies list the names of martyrs and saints arranged in calendar order for their anniversaries or feasts days.  Besides the calendar of saint days, they contain bodies of notes in Irish, or mediaeval Latin, or a mixture of both, written between the lines, or on the margins, or after the quatrain or month referred to, which were added at uncertain dates after completion. In the Martyrology of Tallagah originally compiled by Oengus the Culdee (d. c.824), Whithorn is called Futerna, a latinized Gaelic form of the Old English Hwitherne, White House, and is located in Na Rannaib or Rennaibh, meaning a point or promontory, usually translated Rhinns or Renna. The Martyrology of Gorman a later compilation dating sometime between 1166 and 1174, has St. Ninian ‘bishop of Candida Casa’.


THE MARTYROLOGY OF TALLAGHT


St. Ninnan of Whithorn in Renna (obit September 28)


Da Findio geldai it gessi im cech cobair, clear mar Marchill umail, Iunaill la lith lobair.

[T] The two bright Findios are to be asked for every aid: the great train of humble Marcellus; with the festival of infirm Junillus.


Notation to the two Findias


Laud 610

No Findia gillda, id est Finden Cluana hIraird memoratur hic. No Gillae nomen sancti, no d Findia. Alii dicunt combad he dobeth i Futerna isna Rannaib si uerum est.

[T] Or Findia gillda, i.e. Finden of Clonard is commorated here. Or Gillae is the name of a saint. Or two Finias. Some say that it is he who used to be in Whithorn in the Renna, si uerum est.


[Stokes, William: The Martology of Oengus the Culdee (London, 1905), p. 197, notes pp. 212-13]


THE MARTYROLOGY OF GORMAN


St. Ninnan of Whithorn in Renna (obit September 16)


“Moenend leo”

[T] with them Moenenn


Footnote: Altered from Moinend: Monein (gen. sg.), Drumm. Kal.


Notation or Gloss

Mo-nenn .i. id est Ninnianus episcopus Candidae Casae.

[T] My Nenn, i.e. Ninnian, bishop of Whithern.


[Stokes, William: The Martyrology of Gorman (London, 1895), pp. 178-179]


Portpatrick in the Rhinns of Galloway is also mentioned in Irish Medieval Literature.  In the early tenth-century Irish story about Cano, son of Gartnán, king of Alba, Port Ríg, the old name for Portpatrick, was located in the territory of the Saxons im Inber in Ríg, the river mouth or estuary of the King.  It also notes, he was able to muster a fighting force made up of Saxain and Bretain and fir Alban, the Saxons, Britons as well as the men of Alban. In another ninth or early tenth century text, the Cath Maige Mucrama, Lugaid mac Con of the Corcu Loídge was banished from Ireland and like other princes, he went into exile to the king of Alba. On hearing of his plight, the king assembled at Port Ríg (Purt Ríg) a fleet of ships, galleys and barques of the coastline of the Saxons and the Britons (i n-airiur Saxan 7 Bretan), and with them a vast flotilla of curraches, which was so great the fleet that men said it was as it were one continues bridge between Ireland and Alba. Rind Snóc in the Colloquy of the Two Sages, is located by Watson somewhere in the northern end of the Rhinns of Galloway. In the story, Néide son of Adna, the chief poet of Ireland, went to Eochu Echbél (horsemouth) in the peninsula of Kintyre in Scotland to finish his studies. After spending time there, Eochu reminded him that ‘our two arts have no room in one place’ and he must return to his own country. When he finally set out to return home, he left Kintyre, presumably the Mull, and thence to Rind Snóc, from there he went to Port Rig, and thence across the sea to Rind Roiss, a cape in Island Magee in Co. Antrim.


These stories have been dated to the ninth and tenth centuries, when the Rhinns of Galloway was still said to be part of airiur Saxan. During this period, we find our first discernible reference to Viking activity off the coast of Galloway. The Annals of Ulster under the year 913, report the defeat by the genti or heathens (applied to Viking raiders) on the crew of a ‘new fleet’ of the Ulaid i n-airiur Saxan, that is, on the coast of the Saxons. The Ulaid fleet had sailed from Co. Down on the opposite side of the Irish Sea to fight either Ragnaill, grandson of Ímar or Barid son of Ottar, who the following year 914, clashed in a naval battle near the coast of the Isle of Man, which ended with Barid and almost all his army were destroyed.  Ragnaill was probably amongst those Vikings exiled from Dublin in 902.  They were divided up into groups with some going to Britain, where Ragnaill probably set himself up either in the Isle of Man or part of Galloway, probably the Rhinns of Galloway in Wigtownshire. He would later fight a battle against the men of Alba at Corbridge on the River Tyne in 918 and establish himself as king of York.


The arrival of Scandinavian Vikings and their fleets along the Solway Firth may have begun earlier, soon after Amlaíb and Ímar, two Norse kings laid siege to the fortress of Britons (Dumbarton Rock), called Alt Clut, Welsh Ystrad Clud, Anglo-Saxon Strath Clota on the Firth of the Clyde in 870.  The siege lasted four months, after which it was plundered and destroyed.  The following year, they returned to Ireland with two hundred ships, taking away with them into ‘captivity a great prey of Angles, Britons and Picts’. The inclusion of the Angles is strongly suggestive of those taken captive from Southwest Scotland, perhaps in raids along the coastal areas.  In 875, we also find the Danes raiding the territory of the Picts and the Britons of Strathclyde from Northumbria, which according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, they had conquered and quartered their army at the River Tyne.


When the Vikings first started to settle in Galloway is a question, we are unlikely to ever find an answer and what evidence there is relative to na Renna in the Irish Annals, only begins in 1014. In that year, men from Renna would appear fighting on the side of the Scandinavians of Dublin against the army of Brian Boru, king of Ireland, at the battle of Clontarf. In the Vita Griffini filii Conani, Olaf Sigtryggsson, who died in 1034 is said to have ruled over a number of Irish Sea territories, including Renneu, ‘the Rhinns’ as well as Galwei, Galweia, the Latin form for the Gaelic, Gall Gáidheil.  He was probably related to Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, another Viking king, who dominated the Irish seaboard. In the Chronicle of Marianus Scottus, he was called rex inna renn ‘king of the Rhinns’, when he died on pilgrimage to Rome in 1065. If the historicity of the Vita is reliable, na Renna emerges as a separate territory, distinct from Galweia. It is generally accepted, the boundaries of na Renna probably covered most of modern Wigtownshire and may have included part of southern Carrick in Ayrshire. Its distinctness, sets it apart from the kingdom of the Gall Gáidheil and raises questions about its identity.


Below is a selection of references and their sources that are frequently used to analyse possible information relating to the unrecorded years between 836 and 1070 in Galloway.



[1] Angles, Britons and Picts


1) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 870: Obsesio Ailech Cluathe a Norddmannis, i. Amlaiph & Ímhar duo reges Nordmannorum obsederunt arcem illum & distruxerunt in fine iiii mensium acrem & predauerunt.


[Translation]: The siege of Ail Cluaithe (old name of Dumbarton Rock) by the Norsemen: Amlaíb and Ímar, two kings of the Norsemen, laid siege to the fortress and at the end of four months they destroyed and plundered it.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 326-7]


2) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 871: Amlaiph & Ímhar do thuidecht afrithisi du Ath Cliath, a Albain dibh cetaibh long, & praeda mazima homium Anglorum & Britonum & Pictorum deducta est secum ad Hiberniam in captiuitate.


[Translation]: Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Áth Cliath from Alba with two hundred ships, bringing away with them in captivity to Ireland a great prey of Angles and Britons and Picts.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 326-7]


3) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 872: Artghal, rex Britanorum Sratha Cluade, consilio Custantini filii Cinaedho occisus est.


[Translation]: Artgal, king of the Britons of Strathclyde, was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 328-9]


4) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 873: Imhar, rex Nordmannorum totius Hibernie & Brittanie, uitam finiuit.


[Translation] Ímhar, king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and Britain, ended his life.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 330-1]


[2] Picts and Britons of Strathclyde


1) Annals of Ulster


A.D. 875: Congresio Pictorum fri Dubghallu & strages magna Pictorum facta est.


[Translation] The Picts encountered the dark foreigners, and a great slaughter of the Picts resulted.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 328-9]


2) Simeon of Durham

A.D. 875: Anno Dominicae incarnationis dccc.Ixxv, nativitatis autem Elfredi regis xxvj, praedictus exercitus Repadun deseruit seseque in duas partes divisit. Una pars cum Haldene ad regionem Northanhymbrorum secessit, et eam vastavit, et hiemavit juxta flumen quod dicitur Tine et totam gentem suo dominatui subdidit et Pictos atque Stretduccenses depopulati sunt.

[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 54]


[Translation] The twenty-sixth (seventh) year of the birth of king Elfred, the aforesaid army (Danes) left Repton, and divided itself into two bodies. One division went with Haldene to the country of the Northumbrians, laid it waste, and wintered near the river called the Tyne; and subdued the whole nation under their dominion; they devastated also the Picts and the Stretduccenses [the Strathclyde Britons].


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 475]


3) Florence of Worchester


A.D. 875: Supra memoratus saepe exercitus Hreopedun deserens, in duas se divisit turmas, cujus alterapars cum Halfdene in regionem Northanhym-brorum perrexit, ibique hiemavit, juxta flumen quod dicitur Tine, et totam Northanhymbrorum regionem suo subdidit domino; necnon Pictos et Stratcluttenses depopulate sunt.

 

[Thorpe, Benjamin: Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 92]


4) Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 875 [874]: [Translation] Here the raiding-army (Danes) went Repton, and Halfdan went with some of the raiding-army into Northumbria, and took winter-quarters on the River Tyne; and the raiding-army conquered that land, and often raided among the Picts and among the Strathclyde Britons.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 72]


5) Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 875 [874]: [Translation] Here the raiding-army (Danes) went from Repton, and Halfdan went with some of the raiding-army into Northumbria, and took winter quarters on the River Tyne; and the raiding-army conquered that land, and often raided among the Picts and among the Strathclyde Britons.

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 73]


[3] Sigfrith son of Ímar, king of the Norsemen


A.D. 888: Sichfrith m. Imair rex Nordmannorum, a fratre suo per dolum occisus est.


[Translation] Sigfrith son of Ímar, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by his kinsman.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 344-5]


[4] The coastline of the Saxon


A.D. 913: Cathroined re n-gentibh for fairinn nochoblaigh de Ultaibh i n-airiur Saxan dú i torchradur ili,.i. Cumuscach m. Mael Mochorghi m. righ Leithi Cathail.


[Translation] The heathens inflicted a battle-rout on the crew of a new fleet of the Ulaid, on the coast of the Saxon (England), and many fell, including Cumuscach son of Mael Mocheirgi, son of the king of Leth Cathail.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 344-5]


[5] Ragnald Uí Ímar, king of Northumbria


A.D. 914:  Bellum nauale oc Manainn eter Bárid m. n-Oitir & Ragnall h.Imair ubi Bare pene cum omni exercitu suo deletus est.


[Translation] A naval battle at Manu between Barid son of Oitir and Ragnall grandson of Ímar, in which Barid and almost all his army were destroyed.


[Comment] Rægnald was a grandson of Ímar and a member of the Uí Ímair.  It was the Norse-Gaelic of the Uí Ímair family and ruled from York in Northumbria.


[6] Norwegians of Northumbria and Britons of Strathclyde


1) Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 924: And then (Constantine) the king of Scots and all the nation of Scots chose him (King Edward) as father and lord; and [so also did] Rægnald and Eadwulf’s sons and all those who live in Northumbria, both English and Danish and Norwegians and others, and also the king of the Strathclyde Britons and all the Strathclyde Britons.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 104]


2) Canterbury Manuscript (F)


A.D. 924: Here King Edward was chosen as father and lord by the king of Scots (Constantine) and by the Scots, and King Rægnald, and by all the Northumbrians, and also by the king (probably Ywain) of the Strathclyde Britons, and by all the Strathclyde Britons.

 

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 105]


[7] Constantine, king of the Scots


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 924: And Sitric perished, and king Athelstan succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbria; and he governed all the kings who were in the island; first Hywel, king of the West Welsh, and Constantine, king of Scots, and Owain of Gwent, and Ealdred, Ealdwulf’s offspring, from Bamburgh. And they confirmed peace with pledges and with oaths in a place which is named River’s Meeting on 12 July; and they forbade all devil-worship and then parted in concord.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 107]


[Comment] Gwent may well be a mistake, and the Owain the same Owain, king of Cumbria.  


[8] Owen, king of the Cumbrians


A.D. 934: Fugato deinde Owino rege Cumbrorum, et Constantino rege Scottorum, terrestri et navali exercitu Scotiam sibi subjugando perdomuit.

[Arnold, Thomas: Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis by Symeon (London, 1882), Vol. I, p. 76]


[Translation] He (Æthelstan) then put to flight Owen, king of the Cumbrians and Constantin, king of the Scots; and with an army on land and in ships he subdued Scotland, subjugating it to himself.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, p. 68]


[9] The Scots and Cumbrians


A.D. 937: Quarto post haec anno, hoc est, DCCCCXXXVII. Dominicae nativitatis anno, apud Weondune, quod alio nomine Etbrunnanwerc, vel Brunnanbyrig appellatur, pugnavit contra Onlaf, Guthredi quondam regis filium, qui DC et XV navibus advenerat, secum habens contra Ethelstanum auxilia regum praefatorum, scilicet Scottorum et Cumbrorum.


[Arnold, Thomas: Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis by Symeon (London, 1882), Vol. I, p. 76]


[Translation] In the fourth year after [his invasion of Scotland,] that is, in the 937th year of the Lord's nativity, [Ethelstan] fought at Wendun, (which by another name is called At Burnswark or Brunnanburgh, against the son of the former king Godfrey, Olaf, who had come with six hundred and fifteen ships having with him against Ethelstan the aid of the aforesaid kings to wit of the Scots and of the Cumbrians.


[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 70-71]


[10] Olaf Sitricsson (Amlaíb Cuarán Sigtryggsson)


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 941: Here the Northumbrians belied their pledges, and chose Olaf (Sitricsson) from Ireland as their king.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 111]


[11] Olaf Sigtryggsson


Winchester Manuscript (A)

A.D. 944: Here King Edmund brought all Northumbria into his domain, and caused to flee away two kings, Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 111]


[12] Malcolm, king of Scots


Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 945: Here King Edmund raided across all the land of Cumbria and ceded it to Malcolm, king of Scots, on the condition that he would be his co-operator both on sea and on land.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 110]


[13] Malcolm, king of Scots


Winchester Manuscript (A)


A.D. 946 [948]: Here King Edmund passed away on St. Augustine’s Day; and he had the kingdom six and a half years. And then his brother the ætheling Eadred succeeded to the kingdom, and reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted.


Worcester Manuscript (D)


A.D. 946: And then after him (King Edmund) his brother the ætheling Eadred, succeede to the kingdom, and reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 112]


[14] Olaf Sigtryggsson


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 949: Here Olaf Curaran came to the land of Northumbria.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[15] Olaf Sigtryggsson


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 952: Here the Northumbrians drove out King Olaf and accepted Eric, son of Harald.

[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[16] Eric (blood-axe) son of Harald


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 954: Here the Northumbrians drove out Eric, and Eadred succeeded to the kingdom of Northumbria.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 113]


[17] Kenneth, king of Scots, Malcolm, king of Cumbrians


A.D. 973: Edgar, the peaceful king of the English, . . . was anointed king. Then after a time he sailed with a huge fleet round northern Britain, 3 and landed at Chester. And his eight under-kings met him as he commanded: — to wit, Kenneth, king of the Scots; Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians; Maccus, king of very many islands; and five others, Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil; and swore that they would be his faithful helpers both on land and on sea. And on a certain day he entered a boat with them, and, placing them at the oars, himself took the rudder's helm, and steered skilfully through the stream of the river Dee, while all the crowd of earls and nobles accompanied him in similar craft; and he proceeded from the palace to the monastery of St. John the Baptist. And after praying there he returned with the same pomp. And as he entered it he is reported to have said to his nobles that then only should any of his successors be able to boast himself king of the English when so many kings submitted to him, and he obtained a display of such honours.

[Anderson, Alan O: Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286, pp. 70-71]


[Comment] Translated from Chronicon Florentii Wigorniensis (London, 1848), Vol. I, p. 142-3]


[18] Rhinns of Galloway


A.D. 1014: Do-rechtadar ann Síighraidh Fionn & Síoghraidh Donn, dha mhac Lothair íarla Innsi h-Orc, co slúaghaib Innsi h-Orc imaille friú. Do-rochtadar ann, imorro, slóigh dímhóra a h-Innisbh Gall & a Manuinn, & as na Rennoib, & a Breathnoibh, & a Plémennoibh.


[T] Thither came Siograd Finn, and Siograd Donn, two sons of Lothar, Jarl of Innsi-hOrc, accompanied by the armies of Innsi-hOrc. Thither came, moreover, great hosts from Innsi-Gall, and from Manainn, and from the Renna, and from the Britons, and from the Flemings.
[Hennessy, W. M.: The annals of Loch Cé: a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 1014 to A.F. 1590 (Dublin, 1871), pp. 4-5]


[19] Eugenius the Bald, king of the Cumbrians


Simeon of Durham


A.D. 1018: Ingens bellum apud Carrum1 gestum est inter Scottos et Anglos, inter Huctredum filium Waldef, comitem Northymbrorum et Malcolmum filium Cyneth, regem Scottorum. Cum quo fuit Eugenius Calvus, rex Lutinensium.


[Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. I, published in the Publications of the Surtees Society, (Durham, 1868), Vol. LI (1867), p. 79]


[Translation] A great battle between the Scots and Angles was fought at Carrum between Huctred, son of Waldef, earl of Northumbrians, and Malcolm son of Cyneth, king of Scots, with whom there was in the battle Eugenius the Bald, king of the Cumbrians.

 

[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 527]


Note: (1) Modern historians identify 'Carrum' with 'Carham' on the southside of the River Tweed. For the Battle of Carham, see the following webpage by the Carham 1018 Society and blog by John Morton.


[20] Malcolm, Mælbeth and Iehmarc


Peterborough Manuscript (E)


A.D. 1031: Here Cnut went to Rome, and in the same year he went to Scotland, and Malcolm, the king of Scots, submitted to him – and two others, Mælbeth and Iehmarc.


[The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Translated and edited by Michael Swanton (London, 1997), p. 157, 159]


[21] Malcolm, son of Cinaed, king of Scots


A.D. 1034: Mael Coluim m. Cinaedha, ri Alban, obiit.

[Translation] Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland, died.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 472-3]


A.D. 1034: Malcolm, king of Scots, died, and Machethad succeeded him.

[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 528]


[22] Olaf Sigtryggsson


A.D. 1034: Amlaim m. Sitriuc do marbad do Saxanaibh oc dul do Roim.


[Translation] Amlaíb (Olaf) son of Sitriuc was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 472-3]


[23] Olaf Sigtryggsson


A.D 1034: Bonhed Gruffudd o barth y vam: Fruffudd vrenhin, m Regnell, verch Avleod, vrenhin dinas Dulyn a phymhet ran ywerdon ac enys Vanav, a hanoed gynt o deyrnas Prydein. A brenhin oed ar lawer o enyssed ereill, Denmarc, a Galwei, a Renneu, a Mon, a Gvyned a gvyned ene lle y gwnaeth avloed castell cadarn ae dom ae fos etwas en amlvc ac aelwit castell avloed vrenhin.


Gruffudd’s pedigree on his mother side: king Gruffudd, son of Ragnallt, daughter of Olaf, king of the city of Dublin, and a fifth part of Ireland and the Isle of Man, which was formerly of the kingdom of Britain. And he was king over many other islands, Denmark and Galloway and the Rinns, and Man, and Anglesey, and Gwynedd, where Olaf built a strong castle with its mound and ditch still visible and called “The Castle of King Olaf”.


Note: Vita Griffinin filii Conani is in Peniarth MS 17 which dates to the middle of the thirteenth century. See Jones, Arthur: The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan (Manchester, 1910), pp. 104-5, and Russell, Paul: Vita Griffini Filii Conani (Cardiff, 2005), p. 55, 129-130.


[24] Suibne son of Cinaed


A.D. 1034: Suibne m. Cinaedha, ri Gall-Gaidhel, mortuus est.


[Translation] Suibne son of Cinaed, king of the Gallgaedil, died.


[The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 472-3]


[25] Gaddgedlar


A.D. 1037-1045: One summer Earl Thorfinn went raiding in the Sudreyjar (Hebrides) and in various parts of Skotland. He himself lay at anchor off Gaddgedlar where Skotland borders on England, but he sent some of his troops south to raid the English coast, as the people had driven all their livestock out of his reach. When the English realised that the Vikings had arrived, they gathered together, made a counter-attack, recovered all that had been stolen and killed every able-bodied man among them except for a few they sent back to tell Thorfinn this was how they discouraged the Vikings from their raids and looting.


[Pálsson, Hermann and Edwards, Paul (translators): Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney (London, 1978), p. 61. Place names in italics taken form Gudbrand Vigfursson’s copy of the Orkneyinga Saga and Magus Saga (London, 1887), Vol 1 Icelandic Sagas, p. 41]


[26] Macbeth, king of Scots


A.D. 1052: Osbern, surnamed Pentecost, and his companion Hugh gave up their castles; and going with the leave of earl Leofric through his earldom to Scotland, were received by Macbeoth, king of the Scots.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 537]


[27] Macbeth, king of Scots


[A.D. 1053.] A.D. 1035: Syvard, duke of the Northumbrians, entered Scotland with a large army, at the command of king Edwin; and having given battle to Mactheath, the king of Scotland, he defeated him, and placed Malcolm on the throne, as the king had commanded.


[Stevenson, Rev. Joseph: The History of William of Newburgh (London, 1855), Vol. IV, pt. II, p. 386]


[28] Malcolm, king of Cumbrians


A.D. 1054: Siward, the valiant duke of the Northumbrians, by king Edward's order, went to Scotland with an army of cavalry and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with Macbeoth, king of Scots; and having slain many Scottish soldiers and all the Normans whom we mentioned above, he routed Macbeoth, and, as the king directed, appointed Malcolm, son of the king of the Cumbrians, king. Yet in that battle his own son, and many of the Angles and Danes, fell.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 538]


[29] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1059: Kinsi, archbishop of York, and Egelwin, bishop of Durham, and Tosti, earl of York, conducted king Malcolm to king Eadward.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[30] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1061: Aldred, archbishop of York, went to Rome with earl Tosti, and received the pall from pope Nicolas. Meanwhile, Malcolm, king of Scots, furiously ravaged the earldom of his sworn brother earl Tosti, and violated the peace of St. Cuthbert in the island of Lindisfarne. In the same year pope Nicolas died, and Alexander succeeded him, being the hundred and forty-ninth pope.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[31] Echmarcach, king of the Rhinns


A.D 1064: Echmarcach ri Gall do ecaibh


[T] Echmarcach, king of the Foreigners, died.


[The Annals of Ulster, to A.D. 1131 edited and translated by Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niociall (Dublin, 1983), p. 502-3]


From the Chronicle of Marianus Scottus (d.c.1082):


Echmarcach, rex innarenn, died on pilgrimage to Rome in 1065.


[Pertz, Georgivs Heninricvs (editor): Monumenta Germaniae historica inde ab anno Christi quingentesimo usque ad annum millesimum et quingentesimum (Hahn, 1826), Vol. V, p. 559]


[32] Malcolm, king of Scots


A.D. 1068: Marleswen and Gospatric, and some nobles of the Northumbrian race,—to avoid the severity of the king, and dreading that like others they might be put in confinement, taking with them Eadgar Atheling and his mother Agatha, with his two sisters Margaret and Christina, —went by sea to Scotland, and there, by the favour of Malcolm, king of Scots, they passed the winter.


[The Historical Works of Simon of Durham, translated by Rev. Joseph Stevenson in the Church Historians of England (London:  Seeley's, 1855), Vol. III, pt. II, p. 541]


[33] Malcolm, king of Scots


[A.D. 1070.] A.D. 1051: Malcolm, the king of the Scot, devastated England as far as Cleveland, and married Margaret.


[Stevenson, Rev. Joseph: The History of William of Newburgh (London, 1855), Vol. IV, pt. II, p. 387]


[34] Malcolm III, king of Scots, summons his Galwegians


1079: Ailred of Rievaulx’s account of Malcolm, king of Scots, attack on the men of Hexham.


[Translation] At the time when Malcolm, king of Scots, ravaged Northumbria with cruel slaughter, he ever preserved peace with the church of Hexham, through honour for the saints who rest in it. But when on one occasion his messengers fell among robbers near the lands of that church, and returned robbed and wounded to the king, they laid the charge of this cruelty against innocent people. And the king was enraged and furious over this accusation, and swore that for such ingratitude he would wholly destroy the place itself and the people.

In short, at the king's command the cruel army came thither, ready for spoil, prompt for slaughter, eager for crime, neither sparing for entreaty nor resting for satiety.


And the king's wrath was not hid from the people of Hexham. But what should they do? They had no strength to resist, no stronghold to flee to, no support in the alliance of any vassals; the one and only hope of all was in the oft-tried virtue of the saints. To the church therefore collected young men and maidens, old men and children, women and infants, either to be rescued by divine virtue or surely to be slain before the relics of the saints.


Already the king was there with a strong force, already he had occupied the neighbouring district of the River Tyne, and would have satisfied his cruelty, had not night come on and prevented his crossing.


But the priest who was over the church sent certain of the clergy with relics to the king, both to clear themselves of the charge brought against them and to entreat peace for the innocent people.


The King was angry, and summoned his Galwegians (Galwenses) vassals, more cruel than the rest; and said in the hearing of the messengers, “So soon as day dawns, cross the river and fall upon; let not your eye spare or pity rank, or sex, or age. Whatever the sword cannot, let fire destroy and leave of them no remains”. Thus speaking, with rage he bade the messengers return. And when they had gone back to the church, and related what they had heard, a pitiable tumult arose; a great crying, and weeping and much wailing.


In short, already the shades of night were ended by a dawn which coming forth more brightly than usual, took away the hope of relief which they had entertained; when, behold a mist rose from the westward, and filled the whole bed of the river aforesaid from its source to its mouth. And gradually closing upon itself, in a short time it became so dense and thick that if any one had chanced to hold out his right hand at some distance the hand would have been swallowed up by the darkness, and rendered invisible to him.


The Galwegians (Galwenses) therefore entered the mist, and passing through some wastes crossed the stream on the on the west, on the way which leads to Cumbria (Cumbriam), and towards evening found themselves on the border of their own district. But the king waited both for the Galwegians (Galwenses) whom he had sent, and for the departure of the mist, which he abhorred; and was in doubt what he should do. But when the mist rose and disclosed the light which it had hidden he river had swollen with a sudden flood, and for three days hindered the king’s attempt” to cross the river.


Then the king returned to himself and summoned his nobles and said “What do we, Let us retire hence, since these saints are at home”.


[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 100-102: Latin rendering of Galwegian in italics and brackets, see also James Rainer’s History of the Priory of Hexham, Vol. 1 in The publication of the Surtees Society (Durham, 1864), Vol. Xliv, p. 177-180]


[Comment] Translated by Alan O. Anderson from the ‘Chronicle of Aelred, abbat Rievaux, on the Saints of the Church of Hexham’ in the Chronicles, Endowments and Annals of The Priory of Hexham.


[35] Slaying of Duncan son of Malcolm III, king of Scots


1094: Donnchad mc. Mail Coluim, rí Alban, ocisus est o Domnall mc. Donnchada. In Domnal sin dano do gabáil rige Alban iar sein.


[Translation] Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was slain by Domnall, son of Donnchadh. That same Domnall, moreover, afterwards took the kingship of Alba.


[Comment] The Annals of Inisfallen, MS. Rawlinson B. 503, translated by Sean Mac Airt (Dublin, 1944), p 247.


[36] Congal’s son, king of Na Renna, was slain


1094: Macc Congail, rí na Rend, do marbad.


[Translation] Congal's son, king of Na Renna, was slain.


[Comment] The Annals of Inisfallen, MS. Rawlinson B. 503, translated by Sean Mac Airt (Dublin, 1944), p 247. Benjamin Hudson has suggested that na Renna refers to the Renna, known as the Rhinns of Galloway in modern Wigtownshire. The entry to Congal’s slaying immediately follows the entry of the slaying of Duncan son Malcolm III, king of Scots. It seems possible, the killing of Congal is connected in some way directly to the slaying of Duncan son Malcolm III.


[37] The Men of Galloway


1098: Magnus rex Norwegiae filius Olavi filii Haraldi Harfagre, Galwedienses ita con striuxit, nt cogeret cos materias lignorum caedere et ad litus portare ad munitiones construendas.


[Translation] Magnus, King of Norway, son of Olave, the son of Harald Harfager, compelled the men of Galloway to cut timber and bring it to the shore for the construction of the forts.  


[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]


[Comment] This passage is usually taken to refer to the Isles of Mann. If the case, the passage makes a distinction between the Norwegian and Galwegian.













































































Gall Gaidheil (Galloway) in SW Scotland